LS(1)                            User Commands                           LS(1)



NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are  mandatory  for  short  options
       too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
              file status information) with -l: show ctime and  sort  by  name
              otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              control  whether  color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
              may be `never', `always', or `auto'

       -d, --directory
              list directory entries instead of contents, and do not  derefer‐
              ence symbolic links

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append `*'

       --format=WORD
              across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
              group directories before files.

              augment with a --sort option, but any use  of  --sort=none  (-U)
              disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow  each  command line symbolic link that points to a direc‐
              tory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell  PATTERN  (overridden
              by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
              slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa‐
              tion  for  the file the link references rather than for the link
              itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters  spe‐
              cially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show  non  graphic  characters  as-is (default unless program is
              `ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,  shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              sort  by  WORD  instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S,
              time -t, version -v

       --time=WORD
              with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification  time:  atime
              -u,  access  -u,  use  -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified
              time as sort key if --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
              locale,  +FORMAT.   FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT
              is FORMAT1FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent  files
              and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-',
              STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with  -l:  show  access
              time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any SELinux security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       SIZE  may  be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol‐
       lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
       P, E, Z, Y.

       By  default,  color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is
       equivalent to using --color=none.  Using the --color option without the
       optional  WHEN  argument  is  equivalent to using --color=always.  With
       --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard  output  is  con‐
       nected  to  a  terminal  (tty).  The environment variable LS_COLORS can
       influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: 
       General help using GNU software: 

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright © 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.   License  GPLv3+:  GNU
       GPL version 3 or later .
       This  is  free  software:  you  are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a  Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com‐
       mand

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.



GNU coreutils 7.4               September 2010                           LS(1)