Xorg



Xorg(1x)                                                              Xorg(1x)




NAME

       Xorg - X11R6 X server


SYNOPSIS

       Xorg [:display] [option ...]


DESCRIPTION

       Xorg  is a full featured X server that was originally designed for UNIX
       and UNIX-like operating systems running on Intel x86 hardware.  It  now
       runs on a wider range of hardware and OS platforms.

       This work was derived from XFree86 4.4rc2 by the X.Org Foundation.  The
       XFree86 4.4rc2 release was originally derived from X386 1.2  by  Thomas
       Roell  which  was  contributed  to X11R5 by Snitily Graphics Consulting
       Service.  The Xorg server architecture includes among many other things
       a  loadable module system derived from code donated by Metro Link, Inc.
       The current Xorg release is compatible with X11R6.6.


PLATFORMS

       Xorg operates under a wide range  of  operating  systems  and  hardware
       platforms.   The  Intel x86 (IA32) architecture is the most widely sup-
       ported hardware platform.   Other  hardware  platforms  include  Compaq
       Alpha,  Intel IA64, SPARC and PowerPC.  The most widely supported oper-
       ating systems are the free/OpenSource UNIX-like systems such as  Linux,
       FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD.  Commercial UNIX operating systems such as
       Solaris (x86) and UnixWare are also supported.  Other supported operat-
       ing systems include LynxOS, and GNU Hurd.  Darwin and Mac OS X are sup-
       ported with the XDarwin(1) X server.  Win32/Cygwin  is  supported  with
       the XWin X server.



NETWORK CONNECTIONS

       Xorg  supports  connections  made  using  the  following reliable byte-
       streams:

       Local
           On most platforms, the "Local" connection  type  is  a  UNIX-domain
           socket.   On  some System V platforms, the "local" connection types
           also include STREAMS pipes, named pipes, and some other mechanisms.

       TCPIP
           Xorg  listens  on port 6000+n, where n is the display number.  This
           connection type can be disabled with the -nolisten option (see  the
           Xserver(1) man page for details).


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       For  operating  systems  that support local connections other than Unix
       Domain sockets (SVR3 and SVR4), there is a compiled-in list  specifying
       the  order  in  which local connections should be attempted.  This list
       can be overridden by the XLOCAL environment variable  described  below.
       If  the  display name indicates a best-choice connection should be made
       (e.g.  :0.0), each connection mechanism is  tried  until  a  connection
       succeeds or no more mechanisms are available.  Note: for these OSs, the
       Unix Domain socket connection is treated  differently  from  the  other
       local  connection  types.   To  use  it  the connection must be made to
       unix:0.0.

       The XLOCAL environment variable should contain a list of one more  more
       of the following:

               NAMED
               PTS
               SCO
               ISC

       which  represent  SVR4  Named Streams pipe, Old-style USL Streams pipe,
       SCO XSight Streams pipe, and ISC Streams pipe, respectively.   You  can
       select  a  single  mechanism  (e.g.   XLOCAL=NAMED), or an ordered list
       (e.g. XLOCAL="NAMED:PTS:SCO").  his variable overrides the  compiled-in
       defaults.   For  SVR4 it is recommended that NAMED be the first prefer-
       ence connection.  The default setting is PTS:NAMED:ISC:SCO.

       To globally override the compiled-in defaults, you should  define  (and
       export  if  using  sh or ksh) XLOCAL globally.  If you use startx(1) or
       xinit(1), the definition should be at the top of  your  .xinitrc  file.
       If  you  use  xdm(1),  the  definitions  should  be  early  on  in  the
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession script.


OPTIONS

       Xorg supports several mechanisms for supplying/obtaining  configuration
       and  run-time  parameters: command line options, environment variables,
       the xorg.conf(5x)  configuration  file,  auto-detection,  and  fallback
       defaults.   When the same information is supplied in more than one way,
       the highest precedence mechanism is used.  The list  of  mechanisms  is
       ordered  from  highest precedence to lowest.  Note that not all parame-
       ters can be supplied via  all  methods.   The  available  command  line
       options  and  environment  variables  (and some defaults) are described
       here and in the Xserver(1) manual page.  Most configuration file param-
       eters,  with  their defaults, are described in the xorg.conf(5x) manual
       page.   Driver  and  module  specific  configuration   parameters   are
       described in the relevant driver or module manual page.

       In  addition  to  the normal server options described in the Xserver(1)
       manual page, Xorg accepts the following command line switches:

       vtXX    XX specifies the Virtual Terminal device number which Xorg will
               use.   Without  this option, Xorg will pick the first available
               Virtual Terminal that it can locate.  This option applies  only
               to  platforms such as Linux, BSD, SVR3 and SVR4, that have vir-
               tual terminal support.

       -allowMouseOpenFail
               Allow the server to start up even if the mouse device can’t  be
               opened  or  initialised.   This  is  equivalent  to  the Allow-
               MouseOpenFail xorg.conf(5x) file option.

       -allowNonLocalModInDev
               Allow changes to keyboard and  mouse  settings  from  non-local
               clients.   By  default,  connections from non-local clients are
               not allowed to do this.  This is equivalent to the  AllowNonLo-
               calModInDev xorg.conf(5x) file option.

       -allowNonLocalXvidtune
               Make  the  VidMode extension available to remote clients.  This
               allows the xvidtune client to connect from another host.   This
               is  equivalent  to the AllowNonLocalXvidtune xorg.conf(5x) file
               option.  By default non-local connections are not allowed.

       -bgamma value
               Set the blue gamma correction.  value must be between  0.1  and
               10.   The  default  is 1.0.  Not all drivers support this.  See
               also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -bpp n  No longer supported.  Use -depth to set the  color  depth,  and
               use  -fbbpp  if  you  really need to force a non-default frame-
               buffer (hardware) pixel format.

       -configure
               When this option is specified, the Xorg server loads all  video
               driver  modules,  probes for available hardware, and writes out
               an initial xorg.conf(5x) file based on what was detected.  This
               option  currently  has  some problems on some platforms, but in
               most cases it is a good way to bootstrap the configuration pro-
               cess.   This option is only available when the server is run as
               root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -crt /dev/ttyXX
               SCO only.  This is the same as the vt option, and  is  provided
               for compatibility with the native SCO X server.

       -depth n
               Sets  the  default  color depth.  Legal values are 1, 4, 8, 15,
               16, and 24.  Not all drivers support all values.

       -disableModInDev
               Disable dynamic modification of input device settings.  This is
               equivalent to the DisableModInDev xorg.conf(5x) file option.

       -disableVidMode
               Disable  the  the  parts  of the VidMode extension (used by the
               xvidtune client) that can be used to change  the  video  modes.
               This is equivalent to the DisableVidModeExtension xorg.conf(5x)
               file option.

       -fbbpp n
               Sets the number of framebuffer bits per pixel.  You should only
               set this if you’re sure it’s necessary; normally the server can
               deduce the correct value from -depth above.  Useful if you want
               to  run  a  depth  24  configuration  with a 24 bpp framebuffer
               rather than the (possibly default) 32 bpp framebuffer (or  vice
               versa).   Legal  values  are 1, 8, 16, 24, 32.  Not all drivers
               support all values.

       -flipPixels
               Swap the default values for the black and white pixels.

       -gamma value
               Set the gamma correction.  value must be between  0.1  and  10.
               The  default is 1.0.  This value is applied equally to the R, G
               and B values.  Those values can be set independently  with  the
               -rgamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.  Not all drivers support
               this.

       -ggamma value
               Set the green gamma correction.  value must be between 0.1  and
               10.   The  default  is 1.0.  Not all drivers support this.  See
               also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -bgamma options.

       -ignoreABI
               The Xorg server checks the ABI revision levels of  each  module
               that  it  loads.   It will normally refuse to load modules with
               ABI revisions that  are  newer  than  the  server’s.   This  is
               because  such modules might use interfaces that the server does
               not have.  When this option is specified, mismatches like  this
               are  downgraded  from  fatal  errors  to warnings.  This option
               should be used with care.

       -keeptty
               Prevent the server from detaching its initial controlling  ter-
               minal.   This  option is only useful when debugging the server.
               Not all platforms support (or can use) this option.

       -keyboard keyboard-name
               Use the xorg.conf(5x) file InputDevice section called keyboard-
               name  as  the  core  keyboard.  This option is ignored when the
               Layout section specifies a core keyboard.  In  the  absence  of
               both  a  Layout  section  and  this  option, the first relevant
               InputDevice section is used for the core keyboard.

       -layout layout-name
               Use the xorg.conf(5x) file Layout section  called  layout-name.
               By default the first Layout section is used.

       -logfile filename
               Use  the file called filename as the Xorg server log file.  The
               default log file  is  /var/log/Xorg.n.log  on  most  platforms,
               where  n is the display number of the Xorg server.  The default
               may be in a different directory on some platforms.  This option
               is  only  available  when  the server is run as root (i.e, with
               real-uid 0).

       -logverbose [n]
               Sets the verbosity level for information printed  to  the  Xorg
               server  log  file.   If the n value isn’t supplied, each occur-
               rence of this option increments the log file  verbosity  level.
               When  the  n value is supplied, the log file verbosity level is
               set to that value.  The default log file verbosity level is  3.

       -modulepath searchpath
               Set  the  module  search  path  to searchpath.  searchpath is a
               comma separated list of directories to search for  Xorg  server
               modules.   This option is only available when the server is run
               as root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -nosilk Disable Silken Mouse support.

       -pixmap24
               Set the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 24  bits
               per pixel.  The default is usually 32 bits per pixel.  There is
               normally little reason to use this option.  Some client  appli-
               cations don’t like this pixmap format, even though it is a per-
               fectly  legal  format.   This  is  equivalent  to  the   Pixmap
               xorg.conf(5x) file option.

       -pixmap32
               Set  the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 32 bits
               per pixel.  This is usually the default.  This is equivalent to
               the Pixmap xorg.conf(5x) file option.

       -pointer pointer-name
               Use  the xorg.conf(5x) file InputDevice section called pointer-
               name as the core pointer.  This option is ignored when the Lay-
               out section specifies a core pointer.  In the absence of both a
               Layout section and this option, the first relevant  InputDevice
               section is used for the core pointer.

       -probeonly
               Causes  the server to exit after the device probing stage.  The
               xorg.conf(5x) file is still used when this option is given,  so
               information  that can be auto-detected should be commented out.

       -quiet  Suppress most informational messages at startup.  The verbosity
               level is set to zero.

       -rgamma value
               Set  the  red  gamma correction.  value must be between 0.1 and
               10.  The default is 1.0.  Not all drivers  support  this.   See
               also the -gamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -scanpci
               When  this  option  is specified, the Xorg server scans the PCI
               bus, and prints out some information about each device that was
               detected.  See also scanpci(1) and pcitweak(1).

       -screen screen-name
               Use  the  xorg.conf(5x) file Screen section called screen-name.
               By default the screens referenced by the default Layout section
               are  used, or the first Screen section when there are no Layout
               sections.

       -showconfig
               This is the same as the -version option, and  is  included  for
               compatibility  reasons.  It may be removed in a future release,
               so the -version option should be used instead.

       -weight nnn
               Set RGB weighting at 16 bpp.  The default is 565.  This applies
               only to those drivers which support 16 bpp.

       -verbose [n]
               Sets the verbosity level for information printed on stderr.  If
               the n value isn’t supplied,  each  occurrence  of  this  option
               increments  the verbosity level.  When the n value is supplied,
               the verbosity level is set to that  value.   The  default  ver-
               bosity level is 0.

       -version
               Print  out  the  server  version, patchlevel, release date, the
               operating system/platform it  was  built  on,  and  whether  it
               includes module loader support.

       -config file
               Read the server configuration from file.  This option will work
               for any file when the server is run as root (i.e, with real-uid
               0),  or  for files relative to a directory in the config search
               path for all other users.


KEYBOARD

       The Xorg server is normally configured  to  recognize  various  special
       combinations  of  key  presses that instruct the server to perform some
       action, rather than just sending the key press event to a client appli-
       cation.   The  default  XKEYBOARD  keymap  defines the key combinations
       listed below.  The server also has these key  combinations  builtin  to
       its  event handler for cases where the XKEYBOARD extension is not being
       used.  When using the XKEYBOARD extension, which key combinations  per-
       form which actions is completely configurable.

       For  more  information  about when the builtin event handler is used to
       recognize the special key combinations, see the  documentation  on  the
       HandleSpecialKeys option in the xorg.conf(5x) man page.

       The  special  combinations  of  key presses recognized directly by Xorg
       are:

       Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
               Immediately kills the server -- no questions asked.   This  can
               be disabled with the DontZap xorg.conf(5x) file option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Plus
               Change  video  mode  to next one specified in the configuration
               file.  This can be disabled  with  the  DontZoom  xorg.conf(5x)
               file option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Minus
               Change  video  mode to previous one specified in the configura-
               tion  file.   This  can   be   disabled   with   the   DontZoom
               xorg.conf(5x) file option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Multiply
               Not  treated  specially by default.  If the AllowClosedownGrabs
               xorg.conf(5x) file option is specified, this key sequence kills
               clients  with  an  active  keyboard  or  mouse  grab as well as
               killing any application that may have locked the  server,  nor-
               mally using the XGrabServer(3x) Xlib function.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Divide
               Not  treated specially by default.  If the AllowDeactivateGrabs
               xorg.conf(5x) file  option  is  specified,  this  key  sequence
               deactivates any active keyboard and mouse grabs.

       Ctrl+Alt+F1...F12
               For  BSD and Linux systems with virtual terminal support, these
               keystroke combinations are used to switch to virtual  terminals
               1  through  12,  respectively.   This  can be disabled with the
               DontVTSwitch xorg.conf(5x) file option.


CONFIGURATION

       Xorg typically uses a configuration file called xorg.conf for its  ini-
       tial  setup.   Refer  to  the xorg.conf(5x) manual page for information
       about the format of this file.

       Starting with version 4.4, Xorg has a mechanism for automatically  gen-
       erating  a built-in configuration at run-time when no xorg.conf file is
       present.  The current version of this automatic configuration mechanism
       works in three ways.

       The  first  is  via  enhancements that have made many components of the
       xorg.conf file optional.  This  means  that  information  that  can  be
       probed  or  reasonably deduced doesn’t need to be specified explicitly,
       greatly reducing the amount of built-in configuration information  that
       needs to be generated at run-time.

       The  second  is  to  use  an external utility called getconfig(1), when
       available, to use meta-configuration information to generate a suitable
       configuration  for  the  primary  video device.  The meta-configuration
       information can be updated to allow an existing installation to get the
       best  out  of  new hardware or to work around bugs that are found post-
       release.

       The third is to have "safe" fallbacks for most  configuration  informa-
       tion.  This maximises the likelihood that the Xorg server will start up
       in some usable configuration even when information about  the  specific
       hardware is not available.

       The  automatic  configuration support for Xorg is work in progress.  It
       is currently aimed at the most popular hardware and software  platforms
       supported by Xorg.  Enhancements are planned for future releases.


FILES

       The  Xorg  server  config  file  can  be found in a range of locations.
       These are documented fully in the xorg.conf(5x) manual page.  The  most
       commonly used locations are shown here.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf            Server configuration file.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf-4          Server configuration file.

       /etc/xorg.conf                Server configuration file.

       /usr/X11R6/etc/xorg.conf      Server configuration file.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xorg.conf  Server configuration file.

       /var/log/Xorg.n.log           Server log file for display n.

       /usr/X11R6/bin/              Client binaries.

       /usr/X11R6/include/          Header files.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/              Libraries.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/    Fonts.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb.txt    Color names to RGB mapping.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XErrorDB   Client error message database.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/
                                     Client resource specifications.

       /usr/X11R6/man/man?/         Manual pages.

       /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial  access  control list for display
                                     n.


SEE ALSO

       X(7x), Xserver(1x), xdm(1x), xinit(1x), xorg.conf(5x),  xorgconfig(1x),
       xorgcfg(1x),  xvidtune(1x),  apm(4x),  ati(4x),  chips(4x), cirrus(4x),
       cyrix(4x),  fbdev(4x),  glide(4x),   glint(4x),   i128(4x),   i740(4x),
       i810(4x),  imstt(4x), mga(4x), neomagic(4x), nsc(4x), nv(4x), r128(4x),
       rendition(4x),  s3virge(4x),  siliconmotion(4x),  sis(4x),  sunbw2(4x),
       suncg14(4x),    suncg3(4x),    suncg6(4x),    sunffb(4x),   sunleo(4x),
       suntcx(4x),  tdfx(4x),  tga(4x),   trident(4x),   tseng(4x),   v4l(4x),
       vesa(4x), vga(4x), vmware(4x),
       Web site <http://www.x.org>.



AUTHORS

       Xorg  has  many contributors world wide.  The names of most of them can
       be found in the documentation, CHANGELOG files in the source tree,  and
       in the actual source code.

       Xorg was originally based on XFree86 4.4rc2.  That was originally based
       on X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell, which was contributed to the then  X  Con-
       sortium’s X11R5 distribution by SGCS.

       Xorg is released by the X.org Foundation.

       The project that became XFree86 was originally founded in 1992 by David
       Dawes, Glenn Lai, Jim Tsillas and David Wexelblat.

       XFree86 was later integrated in the then X Consortium’s  X11R6  release
       by a group of dedicated XFree86 developers, including the following:

           Stuart Anderson    anderson@metrolink.com
           Doug Anson         danson@lgc.com
           Gertjan Akkerman   akkerman@dutiba.twi.tudelft.nl
           Mike Bernson       mike@mbsun.mlb.org
           Robin Cutshaw      robin@XFree86.org
           David Dawes        dawes@XFree86.org
           Marc Evans         marc@XFree86.org
           Pascal Haible      haible@izfm.uni-stuttgart.de
           Matthieu Herrb     Matthieu.Herrb@laas.fr
           Dirk Hohndel       hohndel@XFree86.org
           David Holland      davidh@use.com
           Alan Hourihane     alanh@fairlite.demon.co.uk
           Jeffrey Hsu        hsu@soda.berkeley.edu
           Glenn Lai          glenn@cs.utexas.edu
           Ted Lemon          mellon@ncd.com
           Rich Murphey       rich@XFree86.org
           Hans Nasten        nasten@everyware.se
           Mark Snitily       mark@sgcs.com
           Randy Terbush      randyt@cse.unl.edu
           Jon Tombs          tombs@XFree86.org
           Kees Verstoep      versto@cs.vu.nl
           Paul Vixie         paul@vix.com
           Mark Weaver        Mark_Weaver@brown.edu
           David Wexelblat    dwex@XFree86.org
           Philip Wheatley    Philip.Wheatley@ColumbiaSC.NCR.COM
           Thomas Wolfram     wolf@prz.tu-berlin.de
           Orest Zborowski    orestz@eskimo.com

       Xorg  source  is  available from the FTP server <ftp://ftp.x.org/>, and
       from the X.org server <http://www.freedesktop.org/cvs/>.  Documentation
       and   other   information   can  be  found  from  the  X.org  web  site
       <http://www.x.org/>.



LEGAL

       Xorg is copyright software, provided under licenses that permit modifi-
       cation  and redistribution in source and binary form without fee.  Xorg
       is copyright by numerous  authors  and  contributors  from  around  the
       world.   Licensing  information  can  be  found  at <http://www.x.org>.
       Refer to the source code for specific copyright notices.

       XFree86(TM) is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc.

       X11(TM) and X Window System(TM) are trademarks of The Open Group.



X.Org                            Version 6.8.2                        Xorg(1x)

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