fgrep



GREP(1)                                                                GREP(1)




NAME

       grep, egrep, fgrep - print lines matching a pattern


SYNOPSIS

       grep [options] PATTERN [FILE...]
       grep [options] [-e PATTERN | -f FILE] [FILE...]


DESCRIPTION

       Grep  searches the named input FILEs (or standard input if no files are
       named, or the file name - is given) for lines containing a match to the
       given PATTERN.  By default, grep prints the matching lines.

       In addition, two variant programs egrep and fgrep are available.  Egrep
       is the same as grep -E.  Fgrep is the same as grep -F.


OPTIONS

       -A NUM, --after-context=NUM
              Print NUM  lines  of  trailing  context  after  matching  lines.
              Places  a  line  containing  --  between  contiguous  groups  of
              matches.

       -a, --text
              Process a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent  to
              the --binary-files=text option.

       -B NUM, --before-context=NUM
              Print  NUM  lines  of  leading  context  before  matching lines.
              Places  a  line  containing  --  between  contiguous  groups  of
              matches.

       -C NUM, --context=NUM
              Print  NUM lines of output context.  Places a line containing --
              between contiguous groups of matches.

       -b, --byte-offset
              Print the byte offset within the input file before each line  of
              output.

       --binary-files=TYPE
              If the first few bytes of a file indicate that the file contains
              binary data, assume that the file is of type TYPE.  By  default,
              TYPE is binary, and grep normally outputs either a one-line mes-
              sage saying that a binary file matches, or no message  if  there
              is  no  match.   If  TYPE  is without-match, grep assumes that a
              binary file does not match; this is equivalent to the -I option.
              If  TYPE  is  text,  grep  processes a binary file as if it were
              text; this is  equivalent  to  the  -a  option.   Warning:  grep
              --binary-files=text  might output binary garbage, which can have
              nasty side effects if the output is a terminal and if the termi-
              nal driver interprets some of it as commands.

       --colour[=WHEN], --color[=WHEN]
              Surround  the matching string with the marker find in GREP_COLOR
              environment variable. WHEN may be ‘never’, ‘always’, or ‘auto’

       -c, --count
              Suppress normal output; instead print a count of matching  lines
              for  each  input  file.  With the -v, --invert-match option (see
              below), count non-matching lines.

       -D ACTION, --devices=ACTION
              If an input file is a device, FIFO or socket, use ACTION to pro-
              cess  it.   By default, ACTION is read, which means that devices
              are read just as if they were  ordinary  files.   If  ACTION  is
              skip, devices are silently skipped.

       -d ACTION, --directories=ACTION
              If  an  input file is a directory, use ACTION to process it.  By
              default, ACTION is read, which means that directories  are  read
              just  as if they were ordinary files.  If ACTION is skip, direc-
              tories are silently skipped.  If ACTION is recurse,  grep  reads
              all  files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent
              to the -r option.

       -E, --extended-regexp
              Interpret PATTERN as an extended regular expression (see below).

       -e PATTERN, --regexp=PATTERN
              Use PATTERN as the pattern; useful to protect patterns beginning
              with -.

       -F, --fixed-strings
              Interpret PATTERN as a list of fixed strings, separated by  new-
              lines, any of which is to be matched.

       -P, --perl-regexp
              Interpret PATTERN as a Perl regular expression.

       -f FILE, --file=FILE
              Obtain  patterns  from  FILE, one per line.  The empty file con-
              tains zero patterns, and therefore matches nothing.

       -G, --basic-regexp
              Interpret PATTERN as a basic  regular  expression  (see  below).
              This is the default.

       -H, --with-filename
              Print the filename for each match.

       -h, --no-filename
              Suppress  the  prefixing  of  filenames  on output when multiple
              files are searched.

       --help Output a brief help message.

       -I     Process a binary file as if it did not  contain  matching  data;
              this is equivalent to the --binary-files=without-match option.

       -i, --ignore-case
              Ignore  case  distinctions  in  both  the  PATTERN and the input
              files.

       -L, --files-without-match
              Suppress normal output; instead print the  name  of  each  input
              file from which no output would normally have been printed.  The
              scanning will stop on the first match.

       -l, --files-with-matches
              Suppress normal output; instead print the  name  of  each  input
              file  from  which  output would normally have been printed.  The
              scanning will stop on the first match.

       -m NUM, --max-count=NUM
              Stop reading a file after NUM matching lines.  If the  input  is
              standard  input  from a regular file, and NUM matching lines are
              output, grep ensures that the standard input  is  positioned  to
              just  after the last matching line before exiting, regardless of
              the presence of trailing context lines.  This enables a  calling
              process  to resume a search.  When grep stops after NUM matching
              lines, it outputs any trailing context lines.  When  the  -c  or
              --count  option  is  also  used,  grep  does  not output a count
              greater than NUM.  When the -v or --invert-match option is  also
              used, grep stops after outputting NUM non-matching lines.

       --mmap If  possible, use the mmap(2) system call to read input, instead
              of the default read(2) system call.  In some situations,  --mmap
              yields  better performance.  However, --mmap can cause undefined
              behavior (including core dumps) if an input file  shrinks  while
              grep is operating, or if an I/O error occurs.

       -n, --line-number
              Prefix each line of output with the line number within its input
              file.

       -o, --only-matching
              Show only the part of a matching line that matches PATTERN.

       --label=LABEL
              Displays input actually coming from standard input as input com-
              ing  from  file LABEL.  This is especially useful for tools like
              zgrep, e.g.  gzip -cd foo.gz |grep --label=foo something

       --line-buffered
              Use line buffering, it can be a performance penality.

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              Quiet; do not write anything to standard output.   Exit  immedi-
              ately  with  zero status if any match is found, even if an error
              was detected.  Also see the -s or --no-messages option.

       -R, -r, --recursive
              Read all files under each directory, recursively; this is equiv-
              alent to the -d recurse option.

         --include=PATTERN
              Recurse in directories only searching file matching PATTERN.

         --exclude=PATTERN
              Recurse in directories skip file matching PATTERN.

       -s, --no-messages
              Suppress  error  messages about nonexistent or unreadable files.
              Portability note: unlike GNU grep, traditional grep did not con-
              form to POSIX.2, because traditional grep lacked a -q option and
              its -s option behaved like GNU grep’s -q option.  Shell  scripts
              intended to be portable to traditional grep should avoid both -q
              and -s and should redirect output to /dev/null instead.

       -U, --binary
              Treat the file(s) as binary.  By default, under MS-DOS  and  MS-
              Windows,  grep  guesses the file type by looking at the contents
              of the first 32KB read from the file.  If grep decides the  file
              is  a  text  file, it strips the CR characters from the original
              file contents (to make regular expressions with  ^  and  $  work
              correctly).  Specifying -U overrules this guesswork, causing all
              files to be read and passed to the matching mechanism  verbatim;
              if  the  file is a text file with CR/LF pairs at the end of each
              line, this will cause some regular expressions  to  fail.   This
              option  has no effect on platforms other than MS-DOS and MS-Win-
              dows.

       -u, --unix-byte-offsets
              Report Unix-style byte offsets.   This  switch  causes  grep  to
              report  byte  offsets  as if the file were Unix-style text file,
              i.e. with CR characters stripped off.  This will produce results
              identical to running grep on a Unix machine.  This option has no
              effect unless -b option is  also  used;  it  has  no  effect  on
              platforms other than MS-DOS and MS-Windows.

       -V, --version
              Print  the  version number of grep to standard error.  This ver-
              sion number should be included in all bug reports (see below).

       -v, --invert-match
              Invert the sense of matching, to select non-matching lines.

       -w, --word-regexp
              Select only those  lines  containing  matches  that  form  whole
              words.   The  test is that the matching substring must either be
              at the beginning of the line, or preceded  by  a  non-word  con-
              stituent  character.  Similarly, it must be either at the end of
              the line or followed by a non-word constituent character.  Word-
              constituent  characters are letters, digits, and the underscore.

       -x, --line-regexp
              Select only those matches that exactly match the whole line.

       -y     Obsolete synonym for -i.

       -Z, --null
              Output a zero byte (the ASCII  NUL  character)  instead  of  the
              character  that normally follows a file name.  For example, grep
              -lZ outputs a zero byte after each  file  name  instead  of  the
              usual  newline.   This option makes the output unambiguous, even
              in the presence of file names containing unusual characters like
              newlines.   This  option  can  be  used  with commands like find
              -print0, perl -0, sort -z, and xargs  -0  to  process  arbitrary
              file names, even those that contain newline characters.


REGULAR EXPRESSIONS

       A  regular  expression  is  a  pattern that describes a set of strings.
       Regular expressions are constructed analogously to  arithmetic  expres-
       sions, by using various operators to combine smaller expressions.

       Grep  understands  two different versions of regular expression syntax:
       “basic” and “extended.”  In GNU grep, there is no difference in  avail-
       able  functionality  using  either  syntax.   In other implementations,
       basic regular expressions are less powerful.  The following description
       applies  to extended regular expressions; differences for basic regular
       expressions are summarized afterwards.

       The fundamental building blocks are the regular expressions that  match
       a single character.  Most characters, including all letters and digits,
       are regular expressions that match themselves.  Any metacharacter  with
       special meaning may be quoted by preceding it with a backslash.

       A  bracket  expression is a list of characters enclosed by [ and ].  It
       matches any single character in that list; if the  first  character  of
       the  list is the caret ^ then it matches any character not in the list.
       For example, the regular expression  [0123456789]  matches  any  single
       digit.

       Within a bracket expression, a range expression consists of two charac-
       ters separated by a hyphen.  It matches any single character that sorts
       between  the  two  characters,  inclusive, using the locale’s collating
       sequence and character set.  For example,  in  the  default  C  locale,
       [a-d] is equivalent to [abcd].  Many locales sort characters in dictio-
       nary order, and in these locales [a-d] is typically not  equivalent  to
       [abcd];  it  might  be equivalent to [aBbCcDd], for example.  To obtain
       the traditional interpretation of bracket expressions, you can use  the
       C locale by setting the LC_ALL environment variable to the value C.

       Finally,  certain  named  classes  of  characters are predefined within
       bracket expressions, as follows.  Their names are self explanatory, and
       they   are   [:alnum:],  [:alpha:],  [:cntrl:],  [:digit:],  [:graph:],
       [:lower:], [:print:], [:punct:], [:space:], [:upper:], and  [:xdigit:].
       For  example,  [[:alnum:]]  means  [0-9A-Za-z],  except the latter form
       depends upon the C locale and the ASCII character encoding, whereas the
       former  is  independent  of  locale  and character set.  (Note that the
       brackets in these class names are part of the symbolic names, and  must
       be  included  in addition to the brackets delimiting the bracket list.)
       Most metacharacters  lose  their  special  meaning  inside  lists.   To
       include  a literal ] place it first in the list.  Similarly, to include
       a literal ^ place it anywhere but first.  Finally, to include a literal
       - place it last.

       The period .  matches any single character.  The symbol \w is a synonym
       for [[:alnum:]] and \W is a synonym for [^[:alnum]].

       The caret ^ and the dollar sign $ are metacharacters that  respectively
       match the empty string at the beginning and end of a line.  The symbols
       \< and \> respectively match the empty string at the beginning and  end
       of  a  word.   The  symbol \b matches the empty string at the edge of a
       word, and \B matches the empty string provided it’s not at the edge  of
       a word.

       A regular expression may be followed by one of several repetition oper-
       ators:
       ?      The preceding item is optional and matched at most once.
       *      The preceding item will be matched zero or more times.
       +      The preceding item will be matched one or more times.
       {n}    The preceding item is matched exactly n times.
       {n,}   The preceding item is matched n or more times.
       {n,m}  The preceding item is matched at least n  times,  but  not  more
              than m times.

       Two  regular  expressions  may  be  concatenated; the resulting regular
       expression matches any string formed by  concatenating  two  substrings
       that respectively match the concatenated subexpressions.

       Two  regular  expressions  may  be  joined by the infix operator |; the
       resulting regular expression matches any string matching either  subex-
       pression.

       Repetition  takes  precedence  over  concatenation, which in turn takes
       precedence over alternation.  A whole subexpression may be enclosed  in
       parentheses to override these precedence rules.

       The  backreference \n, where n is a single digit, matches the substring
       previously matched by the nth parenthesized subexpression of the  regu-
       lar expression.

       In  basic  regular  expressions the metacharacters ?, +, {, |, (, and )
       lose their special meaning; instead use the  backslashed  versions  \?,
       \+, \{, \|, \(, and \).

       Traditional  egrep  did not support the { metacharacter, and some egrep
       implementations support \{ instead, so portable scripts should avoid  {
       in egrep patterns and should use [{] to match a literal {.

       GNU  egrep  attempts to support traditional usage by assuming that { is
       not special if it would be the start of an invalid interval  specifica-
       tion.   For example, the shell command egrep {1 searches for the two-
       character string {1 instead of reporting a syntax error in the  regular
       expression.  POSIX.2 allows this behavior as an extension, but portable
       scripts should avoid it.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       Grep’s behavior is affected by the following environment variables.

       A locale  LC_foo  is  specified  by  examining  the  three  environment
       variables  LC_ALL,  LC_foo,  LANG,  in  that order.  The first of these
       variables that is set specifies the locale.  For example, if LC_ALL  is
       not  set, but LC_MESSAGES is set to pt_BR, then Brazilian Portuguese is
       used for the LC_MESSAGES locale.  The C locale is used if none of these
       environment  variables  are  set,  or  if  the  locale  catalog  is not
       installed, or if grep was not compiled with national  language  support
       (NLS).

       GREP_OPTIONS
              This variable specifies default options to be placed in front of
              any  explicit  options.   For  example,   if   GREP_OPTIONS   is
              --binary-files=without-match  --directories=skip, grep behaves
              as if the two options --binary-files=without-match and  --direc-
              tories=skip  had  been  specified  before  any explicit options.
              Option specifications are separated by whitespace.  A  backslash
              escapes  the  next  character,  so  it can be used to specify an
              option containing whitespace or a backslash.

       GREP_COLOR
              Specifies the marker for highlighting.

       LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LANG
              These variables specify the LC_COLLATE locale, which  determines
              the  collating sequence used to interpret range expressions like
              [a-z].

       LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG
              These variables specify the LC_CTYPE  locale,  which  determines
              the type of characters, e.g., which characters are whitespace.

       LC_ALL, LC_MESSAGES, LANG
              These variables specify the LC_MESSAGES locale, which determines
              the language that grep uses for messages.  The default C  locale
              uses American English messages.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              If  set,  grep  behaves  as  POSIX.2  requires;  otherwise, grep
              behaves more like other GNU  programs.   POSIX.2  requires  that
              options that follow file names must be treated as file names; by
              default, such options are permuted to the front of  the  operand
              list  and  are  treated as options.  Also, POSIX.2 requires that
              unrecognized options be diagnosed as “illegal”, but  since  they
              are  not  really against the law the default is to diagnose them
              as  “invalid”.   POSIXLY_CORRECT  also  disables   _N_GNU_nonop-
              tion_argv_flags_, described below.

       _N_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_
              (Here  N is grep’s numeric process ID.)  If the ith character of
              this environment variable’s value is 1, do not consider the  ith
              operand  of  grep to be an option, even if it appears to be one.
              A shell can put this variable in the environment for  each  com-
              mand  it runs, specifying which operands are the results of file
              name wildcard expansion and therefore should not be  treated  as
              options.   This  behavior  is  available  only  with  the  GNU C
              library, and only when POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set.


DIAGNOSTICS

       Normally, exit status is 0 if selected lines are found and 1 otherwise.
       But the exit status is 2 if an error occurred, unless the -q or --quiet
       or --silent option is used and a selected line is found.


BUGS

       Email bug reports to bug-grep@gnu.org.

       Large repetition counts in the {n,m} construct may cause  grep  to  use
       lots of memory.  In addition, certain other obscure regular expressions
       require exponential time and space, and may cause grep to  run  out  of
       memory.

       Backreferences are very slow, and may require exponential time.



GNU Project                       2002/01/22                           GREP(1)

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