ftp



FTP(1)                                                                  FTP(1)




NAME

       ftp - ARPANET file transfer program


SYNOPSIS

       ftp [-v] [-d] [-i] [-n] [-g] [-k realm] [-f] [-x] [-u] [-t] [host]


DESCRIPTION

       FTP  is the user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Proto-
       col.  The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a  remote
       network site.


OPTIONS

       Options  may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter-
       preter.

       -v     Verbose option forces ftp to show all responses from the  remote
              server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.

       -n     Restrains  ftp  from attempting ‘‘auto-login’’ upon initial con-
              nection.  If auto-login is enabled, ftp will  check  the  .netrc
              (see  below)  file  in  the  user’s  home directory for an entry
              describing an account  on  the  remote  machine.   If  no  entry
              exists,  ftp  will  prompt  for  the  remote  machine login name
              (default is the user identity on the  local  machine),  and,  if
              necessary,  prompt  for  a password and an account with which to
              login.

       -u     Restrains ftp from attempting ‘‘auto-authentication’’ upon  ini-
              tial   connection.    If  auto-authentication  is  enabled,  ftp
              attempts to authenticate to the FTP server by sending  the  AUTH
              command,  using  whichever authentication types are locally sup-
              ported.  Once an authentication type is accepted, an authentica-
              tion  protocol  will  proceed  by  issuing  ADAT commands.  This
              option also disables auto-login.

       -i     Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file  transfers.

       -d     Enables debugging.

       -g     Disables file name globbing.

       -k realm
              When using Kerberos v4 authentication, gets tickets in realm.

       -f     Causes credentials to be forwarded to the remote host.

       -x     Causes  the  client to attempt to negotiate encryption (data and
              command protection levels ‘‘private’’)  immediately  after  suc-
              cessfully authenticating.

       -t     Enables packet tracing.


COMMANDS

       The  client  host  with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on
       the command line.  If this is done, ftp  will  immediately  attempt  to
       establish  a  connection  to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp
       will enter its command interpreter  and  await  instructions  from  the
       user.   When ftp is awaiting commands from the user the prompt ‘‘ftp>’’
       is provided to the user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

       ! [command] [args]]
              Invoke  an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there are
              arguments, the first  is  taken  to  be  a  command  to  execute
              directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.

       $ macro-name [args]
              Execute  the  macro  macro-name that was defined with the macdef
              command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

       account [passwd]
              Supply a supplemental password required by a remote  system  for
              access  to  resources  once  a  login has been successfully com-
              pleted.  If no argument is included, the user will  be  prompted
              for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

       append local-file [remote-file]
              Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If remote-
              file is left unspecified, the local file name is used in  naming
              the  remote  file after being altered by any ntrans or nmap set-
              ting.  File transfer uses the current settings for type, format,
              mode, and structure.

       ascii  Set  the  file  transfer  type  to  network ASCII .  This is the
              default type.

       bell   Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer  command
              is completed.

       binary Set the file transfer type to support binary file transfer.

       bye    Terminate  the  FTP session with the remote server and exit ftp.
              An end of file will also terminate the session and exit.

       case   Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during  mget  com-
              mands.   When  case is on (default is off), remote computer file
              names with all letters in upper case are written  in  the  local
              directory with the letters mapped to lower case.

       ccc    Turn off integrity protection on the command channel.  This com-
              mand must be sent integrity protected, and must be proceeded  by
              a  successful ADAT command.  Since turning off integrity protec-
              tion potentially allows an attacker to insert commands onto  the
              command  channel, some FTP servers may refuse to honor this com-
              mand.

       cd remote-directory
              Change the working directory on the remote  machine  to  remote-
              directory.

       cdup   Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of the
              current remote machine working directory.

       chmod mode file-name
              Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the  remote
              system to mode.

       clear  Set  the protection level on data transfers to ‘‘clear’’.  If no
              ADAT command succeeded, then  this  is  the  default  protection
              level.

       close  Terminate  the FTP session with the remote server, and return to
              the command interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

       cprotect [protection-level]
              Set the protection level on commands to  protection-level.   The
              valid  protection levels are ‘‘clear’’ for unprotected commands,
              ‘‘safe’’  for  commands  integrity  protected  by  cryptographic
              checksum,  and  ‘‘private’’  for  commands  confidentiality  and
              integrity protected by encryption.   If  an  ADAT  command  suc-
              ceeded,  then  the default command protection level is ‘‘safe’’,
              otherwise the only possible level is ‘‘clear’’.  If no level  is
              specified,  the  current  level  is  printed.  cprotect clear is
              equivalent to the ccc command.

       cr     Toggle  carriage  return  stripping  during  ascii   type   file
              retrieval.   Records  are  denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
              sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr  is  on  (the
              default),  carriage  returns  are stripped from this sequence to
              conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.  Records
              on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single linefeeds; when an
              ascii type transfer is made,  these  linefeeds  may  be  distin-
              guished from a record delimiter only when cr is off.

       delete remote-file
              Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

       debug [debug-value]
              Toggle  debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is specified
              it is used to set the debugging level.  When  debugging  is  on,
              ftp  prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded by
              the string ‘-->’

       dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
              Print a listing of the  directory  contents  in  the  directory,
              remote-directory,  and, optionally, placing the output in local-
              file.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the  user
              to verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
              for receiving dir output.  If no  directory  is  specified,  the
              current  working directory on the remote machine is used.  If no
              local file is specified, or local-file is ‘-’, output  comes  to
              the terminal.

       disconnect
              A synonym for close.

       form format
              Set  the  file  transfer  form to format.  The default format is
              ‘‘file’’.

       get remote-file [local-file]
              Retrieve the file remote-file and store it on the local machine.
              If  the  local  file name is not specified, it is given the same
              name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by  the
              current  case,  ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current settings
              for type, form, mode, and structure are used while  transferring
              the file.

       glob   Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget, and mput.  If glob-
              bing is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are  taken
              literally  and  not  expanded.   Globbing for mput is done as in
              csh(1).  For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is expanded
              separately  on  the remote machine and the lists are not merged.
              Expansion of a directory name is likely  to  be  different  from
              expansion  of  the  name  of  an ordinary file: the exact result
              depends on the foreign operating system and ftp server, and  can
              be  previewed  by doing ‘mls remote-files -’ Note: mget and mput
              are not meant to transfer entire directory  subtrees  of  files.
              That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the subtree
              (in binary mode).

       hash   Toggle hash-sign (‘‘#’’) printing for  each  data  block  trans-
              ferred.  The size of a data block is 1024 bytes.

       help [command]
              Print  an  informative message about the meaning of command.  If
              no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known commands.

       idle [seconds]
              Set the inactivity timer on the remote server  to  seconds  sec-
              onds.   If  seconds  is omitted, the current inactivity timer is
              printed.

       lcd [directory]
              Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no direc-
              tory is specified, the user’s home directory is used.

       ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
              Print  a  listing  of  the contents of a directory on the remote
              machine.  The listing includes any system-dependent  information
              that  the server chooses to include; for example, most UNIX sys-
              tems will produce output from the command ‘ls  -l’.   (See  also
              nlist.)   If  remote-directory  is left unspecified, the current
              working directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on,  ftp
              will  prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
              the target local file for receiving ls output.  If no local file
              is specified, or if local-file is ‘-’, the output is sent to the
              terminal.

       macdefmacro-name
              Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro macro-
              name;  a  null line (consecutive newline characters in a file or
              carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro input mode.
              There  is  a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total characters in all
              defined macros.  Macros remain defined until a close command  is
              executed.  The macro processor interprets ‘$’ and ‘\’ as special
              characters.  A ‘$’ followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced
              by  the  corresponding  argument on the macro invocation command
              line.  A ‘$’ followed by an ‘i’  signals  that  macro  processor
              that  the  executing  macro  is to be looped.  On the first pass
              ‘$i’ is replaced by the first argument on the  macro  invocation
              command  line,  on  the second pass it is replaced by the second
              argument, and so  on.   A  ‘\’  followed  by  any  character  is
              replaced  by  that  character.   Use  the ‘\’ to prevent special
              treatment of the ‘$’.

       mdelete [remote-files]
              Delete remote-files on the remote machine.

       mdir remote-files local-file
              Like dir, except multiple remote files  may  be  specified.   If
              interactive  prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify
              that the last argument is  indeed  the  target  local  file  for
              receiving mdir output.

       mget remote-files
              Expand  the  remote-files on the remote machine and do a get for
              each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on the file-
              name  expansion.   Resulting  file  names will then be processed
              according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  Files are  trans-
              ferred  into  the  local working directory, which can be changed
              with ‘lcd directory’; new local directories can be created  with
              ‘! mkdir directory’.

       mkdir directory-name
              Make a directory on the remote machine.

       mls remote-files local-file
              Like  nlist,  except multiple remote files may be specified, and
              the local-file must be specified.  If interactive  prompting  is
              on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is
              indeed the target local file for receiving mls output.

       mode [mode-name]
              Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The  default  mode  is
              ‘‘stream’’ mode.

       modtime file-name
              Show  the  last  modification  time  of  the  file on the remote
              machine.

       mput local-files
              Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as  arguments
              and  do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See glob for
              details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names  will  then
              be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.

       newer file-name
              Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is
              more recent that the file on the current system.   If  the  file
              does not exist on the current system, the remote file is consid-
              ered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to get.

       nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
              Print a list of the files in a directory on the remote  machine.
              If  remote-directory  is  left  unspecified, the current working
              directory is used.  If interactive prompting  is  on,  ftp  will
              prompt  the  user to verify that the last argument is indeed the
              target local file for receiving nlist output.  If no local  file
              is specified, or if local-file is ‘-’, the output is sent to the
              terminal.

       nmap [inpattern outpattern]
              Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.   If  no  arguments
              are  specified,  the  filename  mapping  mechanism is unset.  If
              arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during mput
              commands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar-
              get filename.  If arguments are specified, local  filenames  are
              mapped  during  mget  commands and get commands issued without a
              specified local target filename.  This command  is  useful  when
              connecting  to non-UNIX remote computer with different file nam-
              ing conventions or practices.  The mapping follows  the  pattern
              set  by inpattern and outpattern.  [Inpattern] is a template for
              incoming  filenames  (which  may  have  already  been  processed
              according to the ntrans and case settings).  Variable templating
              is accomplished by including the sequences ‘$1’, ‘$2’, ..., ‘$9’
              in  inpattern.  Use ‘\’ to prevent this special treatment of the
              ‘$’ character.  All other characters are treated literally,  and
              are used to determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For
              example,  given  inpattern  $1.$2  and  the  remote  file   name
              "mydata.data",  $1  would  have the value "mydata", and $2 would
              have the value "data".  The outpattern determines the  resulting
              mapped  filename.  The sequences ‘$1’, ‘$2’, inpattern template.
              The sequence ‘$0’ is replace by the  original  filename.   Addi-
              tionally,  the  sequence ‘[seq1, seq2]’ is replaced by [seq1] if
              seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it  is  replaced  by  seq2.
              For example, the command

                   nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

              would  yield  the  output filename "myfile.data" for input file-
              names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the
              input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the input file-
              name ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in outpattern, as in the
              example: ‘nmap $1 sed "s/ *$//" > $1’.  Use the ‘\’ character to
              prevent special treatment of the ‘$’,’[’,’]’,  and  ‘,’  charac-
              ters.

       ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
              Set  or  unset the filename character translation mechanism.  If
              no arguments are specified, the filename  character  translation
              mechanism  is  unset.  If arguments are specified, characters in
              remote filenames are translated during  mput  commands  and  put
              commands  issued without a specified remote target filename.  If
              arguments are  specified,  characters  in  local  filenames  are
              translated  during mget commands and get commands issued without
              a specified local target filename.  This command is useful  when
              connecting  to  a  non-UNIX  remote computer with different file
              naming conventions  or  practices.   Characters  in  a  filename
              matching  a  character  in  inchars are replaced with the corre-
              sponding character in outchars.  If the character’s position  in
              inchars  is longer than the length of outchars, the character is
              deleted from the file name.

       open host [port] [-forward]
              Establish a connection to the specified  host  FTP  server.   An
              optional  port  number  may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
              attempt to contact an FTP server at that  port.   If  the  auto-
              authenticate option is on (default), ftp will attempt to authen-
              ticate to the FTP server by  sending  the  AUTH  command,  using
              whichever  authentication  types  which  are  locally supported.
              Once an authentication type is accepted, an authentication  pro-
              tocol  will proceed by issuing ADAT commands.  If the auto-login
              option is on (default), ftp will also attempt  to  automatically
              log  the user in to the FTP server (see below).  If the -forward
              option is specified, ftp will forward a copy of the user’s  Ker-
              beros tickets to the remote host.

       passive
              Toggle  passive  data  transfer  mode off.  In passive mode, the
              client initiates the data connection by connecting to  the  data
              port.  Passive mode is often necessary for operation from behind
              firewalls which do not permit incoming connections, but may need
              to  be  disabled  if you connect to an FTP server which does not
              support passive operation.

       private
              Set the protection level on data transfers to ‘‘private’’.  Data
              transmissions  are  confidentiality  and  integrity protected by
              encryption.  If no ADAT command succeeded, then the only  possi-
              ble level is ‘‘clear’’.

       prompt Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs dur-
              ing multiple file transfers to allow  the  user  to  selectively
              retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off (default is
              on), any mget or mput will transfer all files, and  any  mdelete
              will delete all files.

       protect [protection-level]
              Set  the protection level on data transfers to protection-level.
              The valid protection levels are ‘‘clear’’ for  unprotected  data
              transmissions,  ‘‘safe’’  for  data transmissions integrity pro-
              tected by  cryptographic  checksum,  and  ‘‘private’’  for  data
              transmissions confidentiality and integrity protected by encryp-
              tion.  If no ADAT command  succeeded,  then  the  only  possible
              level is ‘‘clear’’.  If no level is specified, the current level
              is printed.  The default protection level is ‘‘clear’’.

       proxy ftp-command
              Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.   This
              command allows simultaneous connection to two remote ftp servers
              for transferring files between the two servers.  The first proxy
              command  should  be an open , to establish the secondary control
              connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to see other  ftp  com-
              mands  executable  on  the  secondary connection.  The following
              commands behave differently when prefaced by  proxy:  open  will
              not  define new macros during the auto-login process, close will
              not erase existing macro  definitions,  get  and  mget  transfer
              files  from  the  host  on the primary control connection to the
              host on the secondary control connection,  and  put,  mput,  and
              append  transfer  files  from  the host on the secondary control
              connection to the host on the primary control connection.  Third
              party  file  transfers  depend  upon support of the ftp protocol
              PASV command by the server on the secondary control  connection.

       put local-file [remote-file]
              Store  a  local  file  on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
              left unspecified, the local file name is used  after  processing
              according  to  any  ntrans or nmap settings in naming the remote
              file.  File transfer uses the current settings for type, format,
              mode, and structure.

       pwd    Print  the  name  of the current working directory on the remote
              machine.

       quit   A synonym for bye.

       quote arg1 [arg2] [...]
              The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to  the  remote  FTP
              server.

       recv remote-file [local-file]
              A synonym for get.

       reget remote-file [local-file]
              Reget  acts  like  get,  except that if local-file exists and is
              smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to  be  a  par-
              tially  transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is con-
              tinued from the apparent point of failure.  This command is use-
              ful  when  transferring  very large files over networks that are
              prone to dropping connections.

       remotehelp [command-name]
              Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a  command-name  is
              specified it is supplied to the server as well.

       remotestatus [file-name]
              With  no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If file-name
              is specified, show status of file-name on remote machine.

       rename [from] [to]
              Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

       reset  Clear reply queue.  This command  re-synchronizes  command/reply
              sequencing with the remote ftp server.  Resynchronization may be
              necessary following a violation  of  the  ftp  protocol  by  the
              remote server.

       restart marker
              Restart  the  immediately  following get or put at the indicated
              marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte  offset  into
              the file.

       rmdir directory-name
              Delete a directory on the remote machine.

       runique
              Toggle  storing  of  files on the local system with unique file-
              names.  If a file already exists with a name equal to the target
              local  filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is appended to
              the name.  If the resulting name matches another existing  file,
              a  ".2"  is appended to the original name.  If this process con-
              tinues up to ".99", an error message is printed, and the  trans-
              fer  does not take place.  The generated unique filename will be
              reported.  Note that runique will not affect local files  gener-
              ated  from  a  shell  command (see below).  The default value is
              off.

       safe   Set the protection level on data transfers  to  ‘‘safe’’.   Data
              transmissions are integrity-protected by cryptographic checksum.
              If no ADAT command succeeded, then the only  possible  level  is
              ‘‘clear’’.

       send local-file [remote-file]
              A synonym for put.

       sendport
              Toggle  the  use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will attempt
              to use a PORT command when establishing a  connection  for  each
              data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent delays when
              performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT command  fails,
              ftp  will  use the default data port.  When the use of PORT com-
              mands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT  commands
              for  each  data transfer.  This is useful for certain FTP imple-
              mentations which do ignore PORT commands but, incorrectly, indi-
              cate they’ve been accepted.

       site arg1 [arg2] [...]
              The  arguments  specified  are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
              server as a SITE command.

       size file-name
              Return size of file-name on remote machine.

       status Show the current status of ftp.

       struct struct-name
              Set the file transfer  structure  to  struct-name.   By  default
              ‘‘stream’’ structure is used.

       sunique
              Toggle  storing  of  files  on  remote machine under unique file
              names.  Remote ftp server must support ftp protocol STOU command
              for successful completion.  The remote server will report unique
              name.  Default value is off.

       system Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.

       tenex  Set  the  file  transfer  type  to  that needed to talk to TENEX
              machines.

       trace  Toggle packet tracing.

       type [type-name]
              Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type  is  speci-
              fied,  the current type is printed.  The default type is network
              ASCII.

       umask [newmask]
              Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If  new-
              mask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

       user user-name [password] [account]
              Identify  yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password is
              not specified and the server requires it, ftp  will  prompt  the
              user  for  it (after disabling local echo).  If an account field
              is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the user  will
              be  prompted  for  it.   If  an  account  field is specified, an
              account command will be relayed to the remote server  after  the
              login sequence is completed if the remote server did not require
              it for logging in.  Unless ftp is  invoked  with  ‘‘auto-login’’
              disabled,  this process is done automatically on initial connec-
              tion to the FTP server.

       verbose
              Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all  responses  from  the
              FTP  server  are displayed to the user.  In addition, if verbose
              is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics regarding  the
              efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By default, verbose is
              on.

        ? [command]
              A synonym for help.

       Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted  with  quote
       ‘"’ marks.


ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER

       To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
       C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers
       will  be  halted  by  sending a FTP protocol ABOR command to the remote
       server, and discarding any further data received.  The speed  at  which
       this  is accomplished depends upon the remote server’s support for ABOR
       processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an
       ‘ftp>’  prompt  will  not  appear until the remote server has completed
       sending the requested file.

       The terminal interrupt key sequence will be ignored when ftp  has  com-
       pleted  any  local  processing  and is awaiting a reply from the remote
       server.  A long delay in this mode may result from the ABOR  processing
       described  above,  or  from  unexpected  behavior by the remote server,
       including violations of the ftp protocol.  If the  delay  results  from
       unexpected remote server behavior, the local ftp program must be killed
       by hand.


FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS

       Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to
       the following rules.

       1.     If the file name ‘-’ is specified, stdin (for reading) or stdout
              (for writing) is used.

       2.     If the first character of the file name is ‘|’, the remainder of
              the  argument is interpreted as a shell command.  Ftp then forks
              a shell, using popen(3) with the argument  supplied,  and  reads
              from  (writes to) stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes
              spaces, the argument must be quoted; e.g.   ‘‘"  ls  -lt"’’.   A
              particularly  useful example of this mechanism is: ‘‘dir more’’.

       3.     Failing the above checks, if ‘‘globbing’’ is enabled, local file
              names  are  expanded according to the rules used in csh(1); c.f.
              the glob command.  If the ftp command  expects  a  single  local
              file  (.e.g.   put),  only  the  first filename generated by the
              ‘‘globbing’’ operation is used.

       4.     For mget commands and get commands with unspecified  local  file
              names,  the  local filename is the remote filename, which may be
              altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting file-
              name may then be altered if runique is on.

       5.     For  mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
              names, the remote filename is the local filename, which  may  be
              altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may
              then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.


FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS

       The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
       transfer.   The  type  may  be  one  of  ‘‘ascii’’, ‘‘image’’ (binary),
       ‘‘ebcdic’’, and ‘‘local byte size’’ (mostly for PDP-10’s and PDP-20’s).
       Ftp  supports  the  ascii  and image types of file transfer, plus local
       byte size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

       Ftp supports only the default values for the  remaining  file  transfer
       parameters: mode, form, and struct.


THE .netrc FILE

       The  .netrc  file contains login and initialization information used by
       the auto-login process.  It resides in the user’s home directory.   The
       following tokens are recognized; they may be separated by spaces, tabs,
       or new-lines:

       machine name
              Identify a remote machine name.  The auto-login process searches
              the  .netrc  file  for  a  machine token that matches the remote
              machine specified on the ftp command line or as an open  command
              argument.   Once  a  match is made, the subsequent .netrc tokens
              are processed, stopping when the  end  of  file  is  reached  or
              another machine or a default token is encountered.

       default
              This is the same as machine name except that default matches any
              name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be after
              all machine tokens.  This is normally used as:

                   default login anonymous password user@site

              thereby  giving  the  user  automatic  anonymous  ftp  login  to
              machines not specified in .netrc.  This  can  be  overridden  by
              using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

       login name
              Identify  a  user  on  the  remote  machine.   If  this token is
              present, the auto-login process will initiate a login using  the
              specified name.

       password string
              Supply  a  password.   If  this token is present, the auto-login
              process will supply the specified string if  the  remote  server
              requires  a password as part of the login process.  Note that if
              this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other than
              anonymous,  ftp  will abort the auto-login process if the .netrc
              is readable by anyone besides the user.

       account string
              Supply  an  additional  account  password.   If  this  token  is
              present, the auto-login process will supply the specified string
              if the remote server requires an additional account password, or
              the  auto-login process will initiate an ACCT command if it does
              not.

       macdef name
              Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp  macdef  com-
              mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name; its
              contents begin with the next .netrc line and  continue  until  a
              null  line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.  If
              a macro named init is defined, it is automatically  executed  as
              the last step in the auto-login process.


ENVIRONMENT

       Ftp utilizes the following environment variables.

       HOME   For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

       SHELL  For default shell.


SEE ALSO

       ftpd(8)

       Lunt, S. J., FTP Security Extensions, Internet Draft, November 1993.


HISTORY

       The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.


BUGS

       Correct  execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
       remote server.

       An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD  ascii-mode
       transfer code has been corrected.  This correction may result in incor-
       rect transfers of binary files to and from  4.2BSD  servers  using  the
       ascii type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.



                                                                        FTP(1)

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