imake



IMAKE(1)                                                              IMAKE(1)




NAME

       imake - C preprocessor interface to the make utility


SYNOPSIS

       imake  [ -Ddefine ] [ -Idir ] [ -Udefine ] [ -Ttemplate ] [ -f filename
       ] [ -C filename ] [ -s filename ] [ -e ] [ -v ]


DESCRIPTION

       Imake is used to generate Makefiles from a template, a set of cpp macro
       functions,  and  a  per-directory input file called an Imakefile.  This
       allows machine dependencies (such as compiler options,  alternate  com-
       mand  names,  and  special  make  rules)  to  be kept separate from the
       descriptions of the various items to be built.


OPTIONS

       The following command line options may be passed to imake:

       -Ddefine
               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               set  directory-specific  variables.   For example, the X Window
               System uses this flag to set TOPDIR to the name of  the  direc-
               tory  containing the top of the core distribution and CURDIR to
               the name of the current directory, relative to the top.

       -Idirectory
               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               indicate the directory in which the imake template and configu-
               ration files may be found.

       -Udefine
               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               unset variables when debugging imake configuration files.

       -Ttemplate
               This  option  specifies  the  name  of the master template file
               (which is usually located in the directory specified  with  -I)
               used by cpp.  The default is Imake.tmpl.

       -f filename
               This option specifies the name of the per-directory input file.
               The default is Imakefile.

       -C filename
               This option specifies the name of the  .c  file  that  is  con-
               structed in the current directory.  The default is Imakefile.c.

       -s filename
               This option specifies the name of the make description file  to
               be  generated  but make should not be invoked.  If the filename
               is a dash (-), the output is written to stdout.  The default is
               to generate, but not execute, a Makefile.

       -e      This  option  indicates  the imake should execute the generated
               Makefile.  The default is to leave this to the user.

       -v      This option indicates that imake should print the  cpp  command
               line that it is using to generate the Makefile.


HOW IT WORKS

       Imake  invokes  cpp  with any -I or -D flags passed on the command line
       and passes the name of a file containing the following 3 lines:

                 #define IMAKE_TEMPLATE "Imake.tmpl"
                 #define INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE <Imakefile>
                 #include IMAKE_TEMPLATE

       where Imake.tmpl and Imakefile may be overridden by the -T and -f  com-
       mand options, respectively.

       The  IMAKE_TEMPLATE typically reads in a file containing machine-depen-
       dent parameters (specified as cpp symbols), a site-specific  parameters
       file,  a file defining variables, a file containing cpp macro functions
       for generating make rules, and  finally  the  Imakefile  (specified  by
       INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE)  in  the  current directory.  The Imakefile uses the
       macro functions to indicate what targets should be built;  imake  takes
       care of generating the appropriate rules.

       Imake  configuration  files contain two types of variables, imake vari-
       ables and make variables.  The imake variables are interpreted  by  cpp
       when  imake is run.  By convention they are mixed case.  The make vari-
       ables are written into the Makefile for later interpretation  by  make.
       By convention make variables are upper case.

       The  rules  file (usually named Imake.rules in the configuration direc-
       tory) contains a variety of cpp macro  functions  that  are  configured
       according  to  the current platform.  Imake replaces any occurrences of
       the string ‘‘@@’’ with a newline to allow  macros  that  generate  more
       than one line of make rules.  For example, the macro

        #define  program_target(program, objlist)        @@\
        program: objlist                                 @@\
                 $(CC)  -o  $@  objlist  $(LDFLAGS)

       when called with program_target(foo, foo1.o  foo2.o) will expand to

        foo:     foo1.o  foo2.o
                 $(CC)  -o  $@  foo1.o  foo2.o  $(LDFLAGS)


       Imake  also  replaces  any  occurrences  of the word ‘‘XCOMM’’ with the
       character ‘‘#’’ to permit placing  comments  in  the  Makefile  without
       causing ‘‘invalid directive’’ errors from the preprocessor.

       Some  complex  imake  macros  require generated make variables local to
       each invocation of the macro, often  because  their  value  depends  on
       parameters passed to the macro.  Such variables can be created by using
       an imake variable of the form XVARdefn, where n is a single  digit.   A
       unique  make  variable  will  be substituted.  Later occurrences of the
       variable XVARusen will be replaced by the variable created by the  cor-
       responding XVARdefn.

       On  systems  whose  cpp  reduces  multiple  tabs and spaces to a single
       space, imake attempts to put back any  necessary  tabs  (make  is  very
       picky  about the difference between tabs and spaces).  For this reason,
       colons (:) in command lines must be preceded by a backslash (\).


USE WITH THE X WINDOW SYSTEM

       The X Window System uses imake extensively, for both full builds within
       the source tree and external software.  As mentioned above, two special
       variables, TOPDIR and CURDIR, are set to make referencing  files  using
       relative path names easier.  For example, the following command is gen-
       erated automatically to build the  Makefile  in  the  directory  lib/X/
       (relative to the top of the sources):

                 %  ../.././config/imake  -I../.././config  -DTOPDIR=../../.   -DCURDIR=./lib/X


       When  building  X  programs  outside  the source tree, a special symbol
       UseInstalled is defined and TOPDIR and CURDIR are omitted.  If the con-
       figuration  files have been properly installed, the script xmkmf(1) may
       be used.


INPUT FILES

       Here is a summary of the files read by imake as used by X.  The  inden-
       tation shows what files include what other files.

           Imake.tmpl                generic variables
               site.def              site-specific, BeforeVendorCF defined
               *.cf                  machine-specific
                   *Lib.rules        shared library rules
               site.def              site-specific, AfterVendorCF defined
               Imake.rules           rules
               Project.tmpl          X-specific variables
                   *Lib.tmpl         shared library variables
               Imakefile
                   Library.tmpl      library rules
                   Server.tmpl       server rules
                   Threads.tmpl      multi-threaded rules

       Note  that  site.def gets included twice, once before the *.cf file and
       once after.  Although most  site  customizations  should  be  specified
       after  the  *.cf file, some, such as the choice of compiler, need to be
       specified before, because other variable settings may depend on them.

       The first time site.def is included,  the  variable  BeforeVendorCF  is
       defined,  and  the  second time, the variable AfterVendorCF is defined.
       All code in site.def should be inside an #ifdef for one of  these  sym-
       bols.


FILES

       Imakefile.c                   temporary input file for cpp
       /tmp/Imf.XXXXXX               temporary Makefile for -s
       /tmp/IIf.XXXXXX               temporary  Imakefile  if specified Imake-
       file uses # comments
       "cpp"                         default C preprocessor


SEE ALSO

       make(1), xmkmf(1)
       S. I. Feldman, Make  A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       The following environment variables may be set, however  their  use  is
       not  recommended  as  they  introduce dependencies that are not readily
       apparent when imake is run:

       IMAKEINCLUDE
            If defined, this specifies a ‘‘-I’’ include argument  to  pass  to
            the C preprocessor.  E.g., ‘‘-I/usr/X11/config’’.

       IMAKECPP
            If defined, this should be a valid path to a preprocessor program.
            E.g., ‘‘/usr/local/cpp’’.  By default, imake will  use  cc  -E  or
            "cpp", depending on the OS specific configuration.

       IMAKEMAKE
            If defined, this should be a valid path to a make program, such as
            ‘‘/usr/local/make’’.  By default, imake  will  use  whatever  make
            program  is  found using execvp(3).  This variable is only used if
            the ‘‘-e’’ option is specified.


AUTHOR

       Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix and MIT Project Athena; Jim Fulton, MIT X Con-
       sortium



                                                                      IMAKE(1)

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