indent



INDENT(1L)                                                          INDENT(1L)




NAME

       indent - changes the appearance of a C program by inserting or deleting
       whitespace.


SYNOPSIS

       indent [options] [input-files]

       indent [options] [single-input-file] [-o output-file]

       indent --version


DESCRIPTION

       This man page is generated from the file indent.texinfo.  This is  Edi-
       tion  of "The indent Manual", for Indent Version , last updated .

       The  indent  program  can  be used to make code easier to read.  It can
       also convert from one style of writing C to another.

       indent understands a substantial amount about the syntax of C,  but  it
       also attempts to cope with incomplete and misformed syntax.

       In  version 1.2 and more recent versions, the GNU style of indenting is
       the default.


OPTIONS

       -bad, --blank-lines-after-declarations
           Force blank lines after the declarations.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bap, --blank-lines-after-procedures
           Force blank lines after procedure bodies.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bbb, --blank-lines-before-block-comments
           Force blank lines before block comments.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bbo, --break-before-boolean-operator
           Prefer to break long lines before boolean operators.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -bc, --blank-lines-after-commas
           Force newline after comma in declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bl, --braces-after-if-line
           Put braces on line after if, etc.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -blin, --brace-indentn
           Indent braces n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -bls, --braces-after-struct-decl-line
           Put braces on the line after struct declaration lines.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -br, --braces-on-if-line
           Put braces on line with if, etc.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -brs, --braces-on-struct-decl-line
           Put braces on struct declaration line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bs, --Bill-Shannon, --blank-before-sizeof
           Put a space between sizeof and its argument.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cn, --comment-indentationn
           Put comments to the right of code in column n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cbin, --case-brace-indentationn
           Indent braces after a case label N spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cdn, --declaration-comment-columnn
           Put comments to the right of the declarations in column n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cdb, --comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines
           Put comment delimiters on blank lines.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cdw, --cuddle-do-while
           Cuddle while of do {} while; and preceeding `}´.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -ce, --cuddle-else
           Cuddle else and preceeding `}´.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cin, --continuation-indentationn
           Continuation indent of n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -clin, --case-indentationn
           Case label indent of n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cpn, --else-endif-columnn
           Put comments to the right of #else and #endif statements in  column
           n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cs, --space-after-cast
           Put a space after a cast operator.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -dn, --line-comments-indentationn
           Set indentation of comments not to the right of code to n spaces.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -bfda, --break-function-decl-args
           Break the line before all arguments in a declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bfde, --break-function-decl-args
           Break the line after the last argument in a declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -din, --declaration-indentationn
           Put variables in column n.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -fc1, --format-first-column-comments
           Format comments in the first column.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -fca, --format-all-comments
           Do not disable all formatting of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -gnu, --gnu-style
           Use GNU coding style.  This is the default.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -hnl, --honour-newlines
           Prefer  to  break  long  lines  at  the position of newlines in the
           input.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -in, --indent-leveln
           Set indentation level to n spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -ipn, --parameter-indentationn
           Indent parameter types  in  old-style  function  definitions  by  n
           spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -kr, --k-and-r-style
           Use Kernighan & Ritchie coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -ln, --line-lengthn
           Set maximum line length for non-comment lines to n.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -lcn, --comment-line-lengthn
           Set maximum line length for comment formatting to n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -lp, --continue-at-parentheses
           Line up continued lines at parentheses.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -lps, --leave-preprocessor-space
           Leave space between `#´ and preprocessor directive.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nbad, --no-blank-lines-after-declarations
           Do not force blank lines after declarations.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nbap, --no-blank-lines-after-procedures
           Do not force blank lines after procedure bodies.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nbbo, --break-after-boolean-operator
           Do not prefer to break long lines before boolean operators.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -nbc, --no-blank-lines-after-commas
           Do not force newlines after commas in declarations.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nbfda, --dont-break-function-decl-args
           Don´t  put  each  argument  in a function declaration on a seperate
           line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -ncdb, --no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines
           Do not put comment delimiters on blank lines.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -ncdw, --dont-cuddle-do-while
           Do not cuddle } and the while of a do {} while;.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nce, --dont-cuddle-else
           Do not cuddle } and else.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -ncs, --no-space-after-casts
           Do not put a space after cast operators.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nfc1, --dont-format-first-column-comments
           Do not format comments in the first column as normal.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nfca, --dont-format-comments
           Do not format any comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nhnl, --ignore-newlines
           Do not prefer to break long lines at the position  of  newlines  in
           the input.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -nip, --no-parameter-indentation
           Zero width indentation for parameters.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nlp, --dont-line-up-parentheses
           Do not line up parentheses.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -npcs, --no-space-after-function-call-names
           Do not put space after the function in function calls.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nprs, --no-space-after-parentheses
           Do not put a space after every ´(´ and before every ´)´.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -npsl, --dont-break-procedure-type
           Put the type of a procedure on the same line as its name.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nsaf, --no-space-after-for
           Do not put a space after every for.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsai, --no-space-after-if
           Do not put a space after every if.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsaw, --no-space-after-while
           Do not put a space after every while.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsc, --dont-star-comments
           Do not put the `*´ character at the left of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nsob, --leave-optional-blank-lines
           Do not swallow optional blank lines.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nss, --dont-space-special-semicolon
           Do not force a space before the semicolon after certain statements.
           Disables `-ss´.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nut, --no-tabs
           Use spaces instead of tabs.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nv, --no-verbosity
           Disable verbose mode.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -orig, --original
           Use the original Berkeley coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -npro, --ignore-profile
           Do not read `.indent.pro´ files.
           See  INVOKING INDENT.

       -pcs, --space-after-procedure-calls
           Insert a space between the name of the procedure being  called  and
           the `(´.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -pin, --paren-indentationn
           Specify  the  extra  indentation  per  open  parentheses ´(´ when a
           statement is broken.See  STATEMENTS.

       -pmt, --preserve-mtime
           Preserve access and modification times on output files.See  MISCEL-
           LANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -prs, --space-after-parentheses
           Put a space after every ´(´ and before every ´)´.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -psl, --procnames-start-lines
           Put the type of a procedure on the line before its name.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -saf, --space-after-for
           Put a space after each for.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sai, --space-after-if
           Put a space after each if.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -saw, --space-after-while
           Put a space after each while.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sbin, --struct-brace-indentationn
           Indent braces of a struct, union or enum N spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sc, --start-left-side-of-comments
           Put the `*´ character at the left of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -sob, --swallow-optional-blank-lines
           Swallow optional blank lines.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -ss, --space-special-semicolon
           On one-line for and while statments, force a blank before the semi-
           colon.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -st, --standard-output
           Write to standard output.
           See  INVOKING INDENT.

       -T  Tell indent the name of typenames.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -tsn, --tab-sizen
           Set tab size to n spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -ut, --use-tabs
           Use tabs. This is the default.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -v, --verbose
           Enable verbose mode.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -version
           Output the version number of indent.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.



INVOKING INDENT

       As of version 1.3, the format of the indent command is:


            indent [options] [input-files]

            indent [options] [single-input-file] [-o output-file]


       This format is different from earlier versions and  other  versions  of
       indent.

       In the first form, one or more input files are specified.  indent makes
       a backup copy of each file, and the original file is replaced with  its
       indented  version.  See BACKUP FILES, for an explanation of how backups
       are made.

       In the second form, only one input file is specified.  In this case, or
       when  the  standard input is used, you may specify an output file after
       the `-o´ option.

       To cause indent to write to standard  output,  use  the  `-st´  option.
       This  is  only  allowed  when there is only one input file, or when the
       standard input is used.

       If no input files are named, the standard  input  is  read  for  input.
       Also,  if a filename named `-´ is specified, then the standard input is
       read.

       As an example, each of the following commands will  input  the  program
       `slithy_toves.c´ and write its indented text to `slithy_toves.out´:


            indent slithy_toves.c -o slithy_toves.out

            indent -st slithy_toves.c > slithy_toves.out

            cat slithy_toves.c | indent -o slithy_toves.out


       Most other options to indent control how programs are formatted.  As of
       version 1.2, indent also recognizes a long name for each  option  name.
       Long options are prefixed by either `--´ or `+´.  [ `+´ is being super-
       seded by `--´ to maintain consistency with the POSIX standard.]
        In most of this document, the traditional, short names  are  used  for
       the  sake  of  brevity.   See  OPTION SUMMARY,  for  a list of options,
       including both long and short names.

       Here is another example:

            indent -br test/metabolism.c -l85

       This will indent the program `test/metabolism.c´ using  the  `-br´  and
       `-l85´ options, write the output back to `test/metabolism.c´, and write
       the original contents of `test/metabolism.c´ to a backup  file  in  the
       directory `test´.

       Equivalent  invocations  using long option names for this example would
       be:


            indent --braces-on-if-line --line-length185 test/metabolism.c

            indent +braces-on-if-line +line-length185 test/metabolism.c


       If you find that you often use indent with the same  options,  you  may
       put  those  options  into a file named `.indent.pro´.  indent will look
       for a profile file in three places. First it will check the environment
       variable  INDENT_PROFILE.  If that exists its value is expected to name
       the file that is to be used.  If  the  environment  variable  does  not
       exist, indent looks for `.indent.pro´ in the current directory
        and use that if found.  Finally indent will search your home directory
       for `.indent.pro´ and use that file if it is found.  This behaviour  is
       different  from that of other versions of indent, which load both files
       if they both exist.

       The format of `.indent.pro´ is simply a list of options, just  as  they
       would  appear  on  the  command  line,  separated by white space (tabs,
       spaces, and newlines).  Options in `.indent.pro´ may be surrounded by C
       or C++ comments, in which case they are ignored.

       Command  line  switches  are  handled  after  processing `.indent.pro´.
       Options specified later override arguments specified earlier, with  one
       exception:  Explicitly  specified  options  always  override background
       options (See COMMON STYLES).  You can prevent indent  from  reading  an
       `.indent.pro´ file by specifying the `-npro´ option.



BACKUP FILES

       As  of  version  1.3, GNU indent makes GNU-style backup files, the same
       way GNU Emacs does.  This means that either simple or  numbered  backup
       filenames may be made.

       Simple  backup  file  names  are generated by appending a suffix to the
       original file name.  The default for this suffix is  the  one-character
       string  `~´  (tilde).   Thus,  the  backup file for `python.c´ would be
       `python.c~´.

       Instead of the default, you may specify any string as a suffix by  set-
       ting  the  environment  variable SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX to your preferred
       suffix.

       Numbered  backup  versions  of   a   file   `momeraths.c´   look   like
       `momeraths.c.~23~´,  where 23 is the version of this particular backup.
       When making a numbered backup of the file `src/momeraths.c´, the backup
       file  will  be named `src/momeraths.c.~V~´, where V is one greater than
       the highest version currently existing in  the  directory  `src´.   The
       environment variable VERSION_WIDTH controls the number of digits, using
       left zero padding when necessary.  For instance, setting this  variable
       to "2" will lead to the backup file being named `momeraths.c.~04~´.

       The type of backup file made is controlled by the value of the environ-
       ment variable VERSION_CONTROL.  If it is the string `simple´, then only
       simple  backups  will  be made.  If its value is the string `numbered´,
       then numbered backups will be made.  If its value  is  `numbered-exist-
       ing´,  then  numbered  backups will be made if there already exist num-
       bered backups for the file being indented; otherwise, a  simple  backup
       is  made.   If  VERSION_CONTROL  is  not  set,  then indent assumes the
       behaviour of `numbered-existing´.

       Other versions of indent use the suffix `.BAK´ in naming backup  files.
       This  behaviour  can  be  emulated  by  setting SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX to
       `.BAK´.

       Note also that other versions of indent make  backups  in  the  current
       directory,  rather  than  in  the  directory  of the source file as GNU
       indent now does.



COMMON STYLES

       There are several common styles of C code, including the GNU style, the
       Kernighan  &  Ritchie  style, and the original Berkeley style.  A style
       may be selected with a single background option, which specifies a  set
       of values for all other options.  However, explicitly specified options
       always override options implied by a background option.

       As of version 1.2, the default style of GNU indent is  the  GNU  style.
       Thus,  it is no longer necessary to specify the option `-gnu´ to obtain
       this format, although doing so will not cause an  error.   Option  set-
       tings which correspond to the GNU style are:

            -nbad -bap -nbc -bbo -bl -bli2 -bls -ncdb -nce -cp1 -cs -di2
            -ndj -nfc1 -nfca -hnl -i2 -ip5 -lp -pcs -nprs -psl -saf -sai
            -saw -nsc -nsob

       The  GNU  coding style is that preferred by the GNU project.  It is the
       style that the GNU Emacs C mode encourages and which is used in  the  C
       portions  of  GNU  Emacs.   (People  interested in writing programs for
       Project GNU should get a copy of "The GNU Coding Standards", which also
       covers  semantic  and portability issues such as memory usage, the size
       of integers, etc.)

       The Kernighan & Ritchie style is used throughout their well-known  book
       "The  C  Programming  Language".   It is enabled with the `-kr´ option.
       The Kernighan & Ritchie style  corresponds  to  the  following  set  of
       options:

            -nbad -bap -bbo -nbc -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -ncdb -ce -ci4 -cli0
            -cp33 -cs -d0 -di1 -nfc1 -nfca -hnl -i4 -ip0 -l75 -lp -npcs
            -nprs -npsl -saf -sai -saw -nsc -nsob -nss

       Kernighan & Ritchie style does not put comments to the right of code in
       the same column at all times (nor does it use only  one  space  to  the
       right  of  the  code),  so for this style indent has arbitrarily chosen
       column 33.

       The style of the original Berkeley indent may be obtained by specifying
       `-orig´  (or  by  specifying `--original´, using the long option name).
       This style is equivalent to the following settings:

            -nbad -nbap -bbo -bc -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -cdb -ce -ci4 -cli0
            -cp33 -di16 -fc1 -fca -hnl -i4 -ip4 -l75 -lp -npcs -nprs -psl
            -saf -sai -saw -sc -nsob -nss -ts8



BLANK LINES

       Various programming styles use blank lines in different places.  indent
       has  a  number  of  options to insert or delete blank lines in specific
       places.

       The `-bad´ option causes indent to force a blank line after every block
       of  declarations.   The  `-nbad´ option causes indent not to force such
       blank lines.

       The `-bap´ option forces a blank line after every procedure body.   The
       `-nbap´ option forces no such blank line.

       The  `-bbb´  option forces a blank line before every boxed comment (See
       COMMENTS.)  The `-nbbb´ option does not force such blank lines.

       The `-sob´ option causes indent to swallow optional blank  lines  (that
       is,  any optional blank lines present in the input will be removed from
       the output).  If the `-nsob´ is specified, any blank lines  present  in
       the input file will be copied to the output file.




--blank-lines-after-declarations

       The  `-bad´  option  forces  a blank line after every block of declara-
       tions.  The `-nbad´ option does not add any such blank lines.

       For example, given the input
            char *foo;
            char *bar;
            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;

       indent -bad produces

            char *foo;
            char *bar;

            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;

       and indent -nbad produces

            char *foo;
            char *bar;
            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;



--blank-lines-after-procedures

       The `-bap´ option forces a blank line after every procedure body.

       For example, given the input

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts("Hi");
            }
            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts("Hello");
            }

       indent -bap produces

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts ("Hi");
            }

            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts ("Hello");
            }

       and indent -nbap produces

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts ("Hi");
            }
            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts ("Hello");
            }

       No blank line will be added after the procedure foo.



COMMENTS

       indent formats both C and C++ comments. C comments are begun with `/*´,
       terminated  with `*/´ and may contain newline characters.  C++ comments
       begin with the delimiter `//´ and end at the newline.

       indent handles  comments  differently  depending  upon  their  context.
       indent  attempts  to  distinguish  between comments which follow state-
       ments, comments which follow declarations, comments  following  prepro-
       cessor  directives,  and comments which are not preceded by code of any
       sort, i.e., they begin the text of the line (although not  neccessarily
       in column 1).

       indent  further  distinguishes between comments found outside of proce-
       dures and aggregates, and those found within them.  In particular, com-
       ments beginning a line found within a procedure will be indented to the
       column at which code is currently indented.  The exception  to  this  a
       comment  beginning in the leftmost column;  such a comment is output at
       that column.

       indent attempts to leave boxed comments unmodified. The general idea of
       such  a  comment  is  that  it is enclosed in a rectangle or ``box´´ of
       stars or dashes to visually set it apart.  More precisely,  boxed  com-
       ments  are defined as those in which the initial `/*´ is followed imme-
       diately by the character `*´, `=´, `_´, or `-´, or those in  which  the
       beginning comment delimiter (`/*´) is on a line by itself, and the fol-
       lowing line begins with a `*´ in the same column as  the  star  of  the
       opening delimiter.

       Examples of boxed comments are:

            /**********************
             * Comment in a box!! *
             **********************/

                   /*
                    * A different kind of scent,
                    * for a different kind of comment.
                    */

       indent  attempts  to  leave boxed comments exactly as they are found in
       the source file.  Thus the indentation of the comment is unchanged, and
       its length is not checked in any way.  The only alteration made is that
       an embedded tab character may be converted into the appropriate  number
       of spaces.

       If the `-bbb´ option is specified, all such boxed comments will be pre-
       ceded by a blank line, unless such a comment is preceded by code.

       Comments which are not boxed comments may  be  formatted,  which  means
       that  the  line  is broken to fit within a right margin and left-filled
       with whitespace.  Single newlines are equivalent to a space, but  blank
       lines  (two  or  more  newlines in a row) are taken to mean a paragraph
       break.  Formatting of comments which begin after the  first  column  is
       enabled  with  the  `-fca´ option.  To format those beginning in column
       one, specify `-fc1´.  Such formatting is disabled by default.

       The right margin for formatting defaults to 78, but may be changed with
       the  `-lc´  option.  If the margin specified does not allow the comment
       to be printed, the margin will be automatically extended for the  dura-
       tion  of  that  comment.  The margin is not respected if the comment is
       not being formatted.

       If the comment begins a line (i.e., there is no  program  text  to  its
       left),  it  will  be  indented to the column it was found in unless the
       comment is within a block of code.  In that case, such a  comment  will
       be  aligned  with  the  indented code of that block (unless the comment
       began in the first column).  This alignment may be affected by the `-d´
       option,  which  specifies an amount by which such comments are moved to
       the left, or unindented.  For example, `-d2´ places comments two spaces
       to  the  left  of  code.   By  default, comments are aligned with code,
       unless they begin in the first column, in  which  case  they  are  left
       there by default --- to get them aligned with the code, specify `-fc1´.

       Comments to the right of code will appear  by  default  in  column  33.
       This  may  be changed with one of three options.  `-c´ will specify the
       column for comments following code, `-cd´ specifies the column for com-
       ments  following  declarations,  and  `-cp´  specifies  the  column for
       comments following preprocessor directives #else and #endif.

       If the code to the left of the comment exceeds  the  beginning  column,
       the comment column will be extended to the next tabstop column past the
       end of the code, or in the case  of  preprocessor  directives,  to  one
       space past the end of the directive.  This extension lasts only for the
       output of that particular comment.

       The `-cdb´ option places the comment delimiters on blank lines.   Thus,
       a single line comment like /* Loving hug */ can be transformed into:

            /*
               Loving hug
             */

       Stars  can  be  placed at the beginning of multi-line comments with the
       `-sc´ option.  Thus, the single-line comment above can  be  transformed
       (with `-cdb -sc´) into:

            /*
             * Loving hug
             */



STATEMENTS

       The `-br´ or `-bl´ option specifies how to format braces.

       The `-br´ option formats statement braces like this:

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            }

       The `-bl´ option formats them like this:

            if (x > 0)
              {
                x--;
              }

       If  you  use  the `-bl´ option, you may also want to specify the `-bli´
       option.  This option specifies the number of spaces by which braces are
       indented.  `-bli2´, the default, gives the result shown above.  `-bli0´
       results in the following:

            if (x > 0)
            {
              x--;
            }

       If you are using the `-br´ option, you probably want to  also  use  the
       `-ce´  option.   This  causes  the else in an if-then-else construct to
       cuddle up to the immediately preceding `}´.   For  example,  with  `-br
       -ce´ you get the following:

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            } else {
              fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?\n");
            }

       With `-br -nce´ that code would appear as

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            }
            else {
              fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?\n");
            }

       This  causes  the  while in a do-while loop to cuddle up to the immedi-
       ately preceding `}´.  For example, with `-cdw´ you get the following:

            do {
              x--;
            } while (x);

       With `-ncdw´ that code would appear as

            do {
              x--;
            }
            while (x);

       The `-cli´ option specifies the  number  of  spaces  that  case  labels
       should be indented to the right of the containing switch statement.

       The default gives code like:

            switch (i)
              {
              case 0:
                break;
              case 1:
                {
                  ++i;
                }
              default:
                break;
              }

       Using the `-cli2´ that would become:

            switch (i)
              {
                case 0:
                  break;
                case 1:
                  {
                    ++i;
                  }
                default:
                  break;
              }

       The  indentation of the braces below a case statement can be controlled
       with the `-cbin´ option.  For example, using `-cli2 -cbi0´ results in:

            switch (i)
              {
                case 0:
                  break;
                case 1:
                {
                  ++i;
                }
                default:
                  break;
              }

       If a semicolon is on the same line as a for  or  while  statement,  the
       `-ss´  option  will  cause  a  space to be placed before the semicolon.
       This emphasizes the semicolon, making it clear that the body of the for
       or  while  statement  is an empty statement.  `-nss´ disables this fea-
       ture.

       The `-pcs´ option causes a space to be placed between the name  of  the
       procedure  being  called  and  the `(´ (for example, puts ("Hi");.  The
       `-npcs´ option would give puts("Hi");).


       If the `-cs´ option is specified, indent puts  a  space  after  a  cast
       operator.

       The  `-bs´  option  ensures  that  there is a space between the keyword
       sizeof and its argument.  In  some  versions,  this  is  known  as  the
       `Bill_Shannon´ option.

       The  `-saf´  option  forces  a  space  between an for and the following
       parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The `-sai´ option forces a space between an if and the following paren-
       thesis.  This is the default.

       The  `-saw´  option  forces  a space between an while and the following
       parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The `-prs´ option causes all parentheses to be seperated with  a  space
       from  the  what  is between them.  For example, using `-prs´ results in
       code like:

              while ( ( e_code - s_code ) < ( dec_ind - 1 ) )
                {
                  set_buf_break ( bb_dec_ind );
                  *e_code++ = ´ ´;
                }



DECLARATIONS

       By default indent will line up identifiers, in the column specified  by
       the `-di´ option.  For example, `-di16´ makes things look like:

            int             foo;
            char           *bar;

       Using  a  small  value (such as one or two) for the `-di´ option can be
       used to cause the identifiers to be placed in the first available posi-
       tion; for example:

            int foo;
            char *bar;

       The  value  given to the `-di´ option will still affect variables which
       are put on separate lines from their types,  for  example  `-di2´  will
       lead to:

            int
              foo;

       If  the `-bc´ option is specified, a newline is forced after each comma
       in a declaration.  For example,

            int a,
              b,
              c;

       With the `-nbc´ option this would look like

            int a, b, c;

       The `-bfda´ option causes a newline to be forced after the comma  sepa-
       rating  the  arguments  of  a function declaration.  The arguments will
       appear at one indention level deeper  than  the  function  declaration.
       This  is  particularly  helpful for functions with long argument lists.
       The option `-bfde´ causes a newline to be  forced  before  the  closing
       bracket  of  the function declaration. For both options the ´n´ setting
       is the default: -nbdfa and -nbdfe.


       For example,

            void foo (int arg1, char arg2, int *arg3, long arg4, char arg5);
       With the `-bfda´ option this would look like

            void foo (
                int arg1,
                char arg2,
                int *arg3,
                long arg4,
                char arg5);

       With, in addition, the `-bfde´ option this would look like

            void foo (
                int arg1,
                char arg2,
                int *arg3,
                long arg4,
                char arg5
                );

       The `-psl´ option causes the type of a procedure being  defined  to  be
       placed  on  the  line  before the name of the procedure.  This style is
       required for the etags program to work correctly, as well  as  some  of
       the c-mode functions of Emacs.

       You  must  use the `-T´ option to tell indent the name of all the type-
       names in your program that are defined by typedef.  `-T´ can be  speci-
       fied more than once, and all names specified are used.  For example, if
       your program contains

            typedef unsigned long CODE_ADDR;
            typedef enum {red, blue, green} COLOR;

       you would use the options `-T CODE_ADDR -T COLOR´.

       The `-brs´ or `-bls´ option specifies how to format  braces  in  struct
       declarations.  The `-brs´ option formats braces like this:

            struct foo {
              int x;
            };

       The `-bls´ option formats them like this:

            struct foo
            {
              int x;
            };



INDENTATION

       One  issue  in  the  formatting  of code is how far each line should be
       indented from the left margin.  When the beginning of a statement  such
       as  if or for is encountered, the indentation level is increased by the
       value specified by the `-i´ option.  For example, use `-i8´ to  specify
       an  eight  character  indentation  for each level.  When a statement is
       broken across two lines, the second line is indented  by  a  number  of
       additional  spaces specified by the `-ci´ option.  `-ci´ defaults to 0.
       However, if the `-lp´ option is specified, and a line has a left paren-
       thesis  which  is not closed on that line, then continuation lines will
       be lined up to start at the character  position  just  after  the  left
       parenthesis.   This  processing  also applies to `[´ and applies to `{´
       when it occurs in initialization lists.  For example, a piece  of  con-
       tinued code might look like this with `-nlp -ci3´ in effect:

              p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3),
                 third_procedure (p4, p5));

       With `-lp´ in effect the code looks somewhat clearer:

              p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3),
                                    third_procedure (p4, p5));

       When  a  statement  is broken in between two or more paren pairs (...),
       each extra pair causes the indentation level extra indentation:

            if ((((i < 2 &&
                    k > 0) || p == 0) &&
                q == 1) ||
              n = 0)

       The option `-ipN´ can be used to set the extra offset per  paren.   For
       instance, `-ip0´ would format the above as:

            if ((((i < 2 &&
              k > 0) || p == 0) &&
              q == 1) ||
              n = 0)

       indent  assumes that tabs are placed at regular intervals of both input
       and output character streams.  These intervals are by default 8 columns
       wide, but (as of version 1.2) may be changed by the `-ts´ option.  Tabs
       are treated as the equivalent number of spaces.

       The indentation of type declarations in old-style function  definitions
       is  controlled  by  the  `-ip´  parameter.  This is a numeric parameter
       specifying how many spaces to indent type declarations.   For  example,
       the default `-ip5´ makes definitions look like this:

            char *
            create_world (x, y, scale)
                 int x;
                 int y;
                 float scale;
            {
              . . .
            }

       For  compatibility  with other versions of indent, the option `-nip´ is
       provided, which is equivalent to `-ip0´.

       ANSI C allows white space to be placed on  preprocessor  command  lines
       between  the  character  `#´  and the command name.  By default, indent
       removes this space, but specifying the `-lps´ option directs indent  to
       leave  this  space unmodified. The option `-ppi´ overrides  `-nlps´ and
       `-lps´.

       This option can be used to request that preprocessor conditional state-
       ments  can  be  indented by to given number of spaces, for example with
       the option `-ppi 3´

            #if X
            #if Y
            #define Z 1
            #else
            #define Z 0
            #endif
            #endif
       becomes
            #if X
            #   if Y
            #      define Z 1
            #   else
            #      define Z 0
            #   endif
            #endif



BREAKING LONG LINES

       With the option `-ln´, or `--line-lengthn´, it is possible  to  specify
       the maximum length of a line of C code, not including possible comments
       that follow it.

       When lines become longer then the specified  line  length,  GNU  indent
       tries  to break the line at a logical place.  This is new as of version
       2.1 however and not very intelligent or flexible yet.

       Currently there are two options that allows one to interfere  with  the
       algorithm that determines where to break a line.

       The  `-bbo´  option  causes  GNU  indent  to prefer to break long lines
       before the boolean operators && and ||.  The `-nbbo´ option causes  GNU
       indent  not  have  that  preference.   For  example, the default option
       `-bbo´ (together with `--line-length60´ and `--ignore-newlines´)  makes
       code look like this:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ´\0´)
                      || (mask[1] == ´\0´
                          && ((mask[0] == ´0´) || (mask[0] == ´*´)))))

       Using the option `-nbbo´ will make it look like this:

              if (mask &&
                  ((mask[0] == ´\0´) ||
                   (mask[1] == ´\0´ &&
                    ((mask[0] == ´0´) || (mask[0] == ´*´)))))

       The default `-hnl´, however, honours newlines in the input file by giv-
       ing them the highest possible priority to break lines at.  For example,
       when the input file looks like this:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ´\0´)
                  || (mask[1] == ´\0´ && ((mask[0] == ´0´) || (mask[0] == ´*´)))))

       then using the option `-hnl´, or `--honour-newlines´, together with the
       previously mentioned `-nbbo´ and `--line-length60´, will cause the out-
       put not to be what is given in the last example but instead will prefer
       to break at the positions where the code was broken in the input file:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ´\0´)
                      || (mask[1] == ´\0´ &&
                          ((mask[0] == ´0´) || (mask[0] == ´*´)))))

       The idea behind this option is that lines which are too long,  but  are
       already  broken  up,  will  not be touched by GNU indent.  Really messy
       code should be run through indent at least once  using  the  `--ignore-
       newlines´ option though.



DISABLING FORMATTING

       Formatting  of  C  code  may  be  disabled for portions of a program by
       embedding special control comments in the program.  To turn off format-
       ting for a section of a program, place the disabling control comment /*
       *INDENT-OFF* */ on a line by itself just before that section.   Program
       text  scanned  after  this control comment is output precisely as input
       with no modifications  until  the  corresponding  enabling  comment  is
       scanned  on  a  line  by  itself.   The disabling control comment is /*
       *INDENT-ON* */, and any text following the comment on the line is  also
       output  unformatted.   Formatting begins again with the input line fol-
       lowing the enabling control comment.

       More precisely, indent does not attempt to verify the closing delimiter
       (*/)  for  these  C comments, and any whitespace on the line is totally
       transparent.

       These control comments also function in their C++  formats,  namely  //
       *INDENT-OFF* and // *INDENT-ON*.

       It  should be noted that the internal state of indent remains unchanged
       over the course of the unformatted section.  Thus, for example, turning
       off  formatting in the middle of a function and continuing it after the
       end of the function may lead to bizarre results.  It is therefore  wise
       to be somewhat modular in selecting code to be left unformatted.

       As  a  historical  note, some earlier versions of indent produced error
       messages beginning with *INDENT**.  These versions of indent were writ-
       ten  to  ignore  any  input text lines which began with such error mes-
       sages.  I have removed this incestuous feature from GNU indent.



MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS

       To find out what version of indent you have,  use  the  command  indent
       -version.  This will report the version number of indent, without doing
       any of the normal processing.

       The `-v´ option can be used to turn on verbose mode.  When  in  verbose
       mode,  indent  reports  when  it splits one line of input into two more
       more lines of output, and gives some size statistics at completion.

       The `-pmt´ option causes indent to preserve the access and modification
       times  on  the  output files.  Using this option has the advantage that
       running indent on all source and header files in a project won´t  cause
       make  to rebuild all targets.  This option is only available on Operat-
       ing Systems that have the POSIX utime(2) function.



BUGS

       Please report any bugs to bug-indent@gnu.org.

       When indent is run twice on a file, with the same  profile,  it  should
       never  change  that  file  the second time.  With the current design of
       indent, this can not be guaranteed, and it  has  not  been  extensively
       tested.

       indent does not understand C. In some cases this leads to the inability
       to join lines.  The result is that running a  file  through  indent  is
       irreversible,  even  if  the  used input file was the result of running
       indent with a given profile (`.indent.pro´).

       While an attempt was made to get indent working for C++, it will not do
       a good job on any C++ source except the very simplest.

       indent  does  not look at the given `--line-length´ option when writing
       comments to the output file.  This results often in comments being  put
       far  to  the  right.  In order to prohibit indent from joining a broken
       line that has a comment at the end, make sure that the  comments  start
       on the first line of the break.

       indent  does  not  count  lines and comments (see the `-v´ option) when
       indent is turned off with /* *INDENT-OFF* */.

       Comments of the form /*UPPERCASE*/ are not treated as comment but as an
       identifier,  causing them to be joined with the next line. This renders
       comments of this type useless, unless they are embedded in the code  to
       begin with.



COPYRIGHT

       The  following  copyright  notice  applies  to the indent program.  The
       copyright and copying permissions  for  this  manual  appear  near  the
       beginning  of  `indent.texinfo´  and `indent.info´, and near the end of
       `indent.1´.

       Copyright (c) 2001 David Ingamells.
       Copyright (c) 1999 Carlo Wood.
       Copyright (c) 1995, 1996 Joseph Arceneaux.
       Copyright (c) 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 Free Software Foundation
       Copyright (c) 1985 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
       Copyright (c) 1980 The Regents of the University of California.
       Copyright (c) 1976 Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.
       All rights reserved.

       Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted
       provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
       duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation,
       advertising materials, and other materials related to such
       distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed
       by the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Illinois,
       Urbana, and Sun Microsystems, Inc.  The name of either University
       or Sun Microsystems may not be used to endorse or promote products
       derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
       THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS´´ AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR
       IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
       WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.



Options´ Cross Key

       Here is a list of options alphabetized by long option, to help you find
       the corresponding short option.


            --blank-lines-after-commas                      -bc
            --blank-lines-after-declarations                -bad
            --blank-lines-after-procedures                  -bap
            --blank-lines-before-block-comments             -bbb
            --braces-after-if-line                          -bl
            --brace-indent                                  -bli
            --braces-after-struct-decl-line                 -bls
            --braces-on-if-line                             -br
            --braces-on-struct-decl-line                    -brs
            --break-after-boolean-operator                  -nbbo
            --break-before-boolean-operator                 -bbo
            --break-function-decl-args                      -bfda
            --break-function-decl-args-end                  -bfde
            --case-indentation                              -clin
            --case-brace-indentation                        -cbin
            --comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines             -cdb
            --comment-indentation                           -cn
            --continuation-indentation                      -cin
            --continue-at-parentheses                       -lp
            --cuddle-do-while                               -cdw
            --cuddle-else                                   -ce
            --declaration-comment-column                    -cdn
            --declaration-indentation                       -din
            --dont-break-function-decl-args                 -nbfda
            --dont-break-function-decl-args-end             -nbfde
            --dont-break-procedure-type                     -npsl
            --dont-cuddle-do-while                          -ncdw
            --dont-cuddle-else                              -nce
            --dont-format-comments                          -nfca
            --dont-format-first-column-comments             -nfc1
            --dont-line-up-parentheses                      -nlp
            --dont-space-special-semicolon                  -nss
            --dont-star-comments                            -nsc
            --else-endif-column                             -cpn
            --format-all-comments                           -fca
            --format-first-column-comments                  -fc1
            --gnu-style                                     -gnu
            --honour-newlines                               -hnl
            --ignore-newlines                               -nhnl
            --ignore-profile                                -npro
            --indent-level                                  -in
            --k-and-r-style                                 -kr
            --leave-optional-blank-lines                    -nsob
            --leave-preprocessor-space                      -lps
            --line-comments-indentation                     -dn
            --line-length                                   -ln
            --no-blank-lines-after-commas                   -nbc
            --no-blank-lines-after-declarations             -nbad
            --no-blank-lines-after-procedures               -nbap
            --no-blank-lines-before-block-comments          -nbbb
            --no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines          -ncdb
            --no-space-after-casts                          -ncs
            --no-parameter-indentation                      -nip
            --no-space-after-for                    -nsaf
            --no-space-after-function-call-names            -npcs
            --no-space-after-if                -nsai
            --no-space-after-parentheses                    -nprs
            --no-space-after-while                  -nsaw
            --no-tabs                                       -nut
            --no-verbosity                                  -nv
            --original                                      -orig
            --parameter-indentation                         -ipn
            --paren-indentation                             -pin
            --preserve-mtime                   -pmt
            --procnames-start-lines                         -psl
            --space-after-cast                              -cs
            --space-after-for                  -saf
            --space-after-if                   -sai
            --space-after-parentheses                       -prs
            --space-after-procedure-calls                   -pcs
            --space-after-while                -saw
            --space-special-semicolon                       -ss
            --standard-output                               -st
            --start-left-side-of-comments                   -sc
            --struct-brace-indentation                      -sbin
            --swallow-optional-blank-lines                  -sob
            --tab-size                                      -tsn
            --use-tabs                                      -ut
            --verbose                                       -v



RETURN VALUE

       Unknown


FILES

       $HOME/.indent.pro   holds default options for indent.


AUTHORS

       Carlo Wood
       Joseph Arceneaux
       Jim Kingdon
       David Ingamells


HISTORY

       Derived from the UCB program "indent".


COPYING

       Copyright  (C) 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 Free Software Founda-
       tion, Inc.  Copyright (C) 1995, 1996 Joseph Arceneaux.   Copyright  (C)
       1999 Carlo Wood.  Copyright (C) 2001 David Ingamells.

       Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and  this  permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.





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