# latex2html


LaTeX2HTML(1)               Debian GNU/Linux manual              LaTeX2HTML(1)



## NAME

       latex2html - translate LaTeX files to HTML (HyperText Markup Language)



## SYNOPSIS

       latex2html [options] [target [target ...]]



## DESCRIPTION

       This  manual page explains the LaTeX2HTML utility, which is a Perl pro-
gram that translates LaTeX document into HTML format. For  each  source
file  given  as an argument the translator will create a directory con-
taining the corresponding HTML files. For details and examples,  please
consult the online html documentation, a copy of which should be avail-
able        in        /usr/share/doc/latex2html/manual.ps.gz         or
/usr/share/doc/latex2html/html/



## CAVEAT

       This  documetation has been derived from the TeX manual, and may not be
uptodate. Please refer to the online manual for authoritative  documen-
tation.



## Options controlling Titles, File-Names and Sectioning

       -t <top-page-title>
Same  as  setting: $TITLE = <top-page-title> ; Name the document using this title. -short_extn Same as setting:$SHORTEXTN = 1; Use a filename prefix  of  .htm
for  the  produced  HTML  files. This is particularly useful for
creating pages to be stored on CD-ROM or other media, to be used
with operating systems that require a 3-character extension.

-long_titles <num>
Same  as  setting: $LONG_TITLES = <num>; Instead of the standard names: node1.html, node2.html,... the filenames for each HTML page are constructed from the first <num> words of the section heading for that page, separated by the â€˜_â€™ character. Commas and common short words (a an to by of and for the) are omitted from both title and word-count. Warning: Use this switch with great caution. Currently there are no checks for uniqueness of names or overall length. Very long names can easily result from using this feature. -custom_titles Same as setting:$CUSTOM_TITLES  = 1; Instead of the standard
names: node1.html, node2.html, ... the filenames for  each  HTML
page   are  constructed  using  a  Perl  subroutine  named  cus-
tom_title_hook . The user may define his/her own version of this
subroutine,  within a .latex2html-init file say, to override the
default (which uses the standard names). This  subroutine  takes
the  section-heading as a parameter and must return the required
name, or the empty string (default).

-dir <output-directory>
Same as setting: $DESTDIR = <output-directory> ; Redirect the output to the specified directory. The default behaviour is to create (or reuse) a directory having the same name as the prefix of the document being processed. -no_subdir Same as setting:$NO_SUBDIR = 1; Place the generated HTML files
into the current directory. This overrides any $DESTDIR setting. -prefix <filename-prefix> Same as setting:$PREFIX = <filename-prefix> ; The <filename-
prefix> will be prepended to all .gif, .pl and .html files  pro-
duced,  except  for  the  top-level .html file; it may include a
(relative) directory path. This will enable multiple products of
LaTeX2HTML to peacefully coexist in the same directory. However,
do not attempt  to  simultaneously  run  multiple  instances  of
LaTeX2HTML  using the same output directory, else various tempo-
rary files will overwrite each other.

-auto_prefix
Same as setting: $AUTO_PREFIX = 1; Constructs the prefix as â€˜<title>-â€™ to be prepended to all the files produced, where <title> is the name of the LaTeX file being processed. (Note the â€˜-â€™ in this prefix.) This overrides any$PREFIX setting.

Same  as  setting:  $NO_AUTO_LINK = 1; If$NO_AUTO_LINK is empty
and variables $LINKPOINT and$LINKNAME are defined appropriately
(as  is  the default in the latex2html.config file), then a hard
link to the main HTML page is produced, using the name  supplied
in  $LINKNAME. Typically this is index.html; on many systems a file of this name will be used, if it exists, when a browser tries to view a URL which points to a directory. On other sys- tems a different value for$LINKNAME may be  appropriate.  Typi-
cally  $LINKPOINT has value$FILE.html,  but this may also be
changed to match whichever HTML page is to become the target  of
this automatic linking facility, when not required for a partic-
ular document.

-split <num>
Same  as  setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 8) Stop splitting sections into separate files at this depth. Specifying -split 0 will put the entire document into a single HTML file. See below for the different levels of sectioning. Also see the next item for how to set a â€˜â€˜relativeâ€™â€™ depth for splitting. -split +<num> Same as setting:$MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = -<num>; (default is 8) The
level at which to stop splitting sections is calculated  â€˜â€˜rela-
tive  toâ€™â€™ the shallowest level of sectioning that occurs within
the document. For example, if  the  document  contains  \section
commands, but no \part or \chapter commands, then -split +1 will
cause splitting at each \section but not at  any  deeper  level;
whereas  -split  +2  or -split +3 also split down to \subsection
and \subsubsection commands respectively. Specifying  -split  +0
puts the entire document into a single HTML file.

Same  as  setting:  $MAX_LINK_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 4) For each node, create links to child nodes down to this much deeper than the nodeâ€™s sectioning-level. Specifying -link 0 will show no links to child nodes from that page, -link 1 will show only the immediate descendents, etc. A value at least as big as that of the -split <num> depth will produce a mini table-of-contents (when not empty) on each page, for the tree structure rooted at that node. When the page has a sectioning-level less than the -split depth, so that the a mini table-of-contents has links to other HTML pages, this table is located at the bottom of the page, unless placed elsewhere using the \tableofchildlinks com- mand. On pages having a sectioning-level just less than the -split depth the mini table-of-contents contains links to sub- sections etc. occurring on the same HTML page. Now the table is located at the top of this page, unless placed elsewhere using the \tableofchildlinks command. -toc_depth <num> Same as setting:$TOC_DEPTH = <num>; (default is  4)  Sectioning
levels down to <num> are to be included within the Table-of-Con-
tents tree.

-toc_stars
Same as setting: $TOC_STARS = 1; Sections created using the starred-form of sectioning commands are included within the Ta- ble-of-Contents. As with LaTeX, normally such sections are not listed. -show_section_numbers Same as setting:$SHOW_SECTION_NUMBERS = 1; Show section num-
bers. By default section numbers are not shown, so as to encour-
age the use of particular sections as stand-alone documents.  In
order to be shown, section titles must be unique  and  must  not
contain inlined graphics.

-unsegment
Same as setting: $UNSEGMENT = 1; Treat a segmented document (see the section about document segmentation) like it were not seg- mented. This will cause the translator to concatenate all seg- ments and process them as a whole. You might find this useful to check a segmented document for consistency. For all documents the sectioning levels referred to above are: 0 document 1 part 2 chapter 3 section 4 subsection 5 subsubsection 6 paragraph 7 subparagraph 8 subsubparagraph These levels apply even when the document contains no sectioning for the shallower levels; e.g. no \part or \chapter commands is most com- mon, especially when using LaTeXâ€â€™s article document-class.  ## Options controlling Extensions and Special Features  The switches described here govern the type of HTML code that can be generated, and how to choose between the available options when there are alternative strategies for implementing portions of LaTeX code. -html_version (2.0|3.0|3.2)[,(math|i18n|table)]* Same as setting:$HTML_VERSION = ...  ; This specifies both  the
HTML version to generate, and any extra (non-standard) HTML fea-
tures that may be required.  The version number corresponds to a
published  DTD  for  an  HTML  standard  (although 3.0 was never
accepted and subsequently withdrawn). A corresponding Perl  file
in  the  versions/ subdirectory is loaded; these files are named
â€˜html<num>.plâ€™.  Following the version number, a comma-separated
list  of  extensions  can  be  given. Each corresponds to a file
â€˜<name>.plâ€™ also located in  the  versions/  subdirectory.  When
such  a  file is loaded the resulting HTML code can no longer be
expected to validate with the specified  DTD.  An  exception  is
math  when  the -no_math switch is also used, which should still
validate.  Currently, versions 2.0, 3.2 and 4.0  are  available.
(and  also  2.1, 2.2, 3.0 and 3.1, for hoistorical reasons). The
extensions i18n, tables, math correspond roughly to what used to
be called versions â€˜2.1â€™, â€˜2.2â€™, â€˜3.1â€™ respectively, in releases
of LaTeX2HTML up to 1996. Now these  extensions  can  be  loaded
with  any  of  â€˜2.0â€™,  â€˜3.2â€™ or â€˜4.0â€™ as the specified standard.
The  default  version  is  usually  set  to  be  â€˜3.2â€™,   within
latex2html.config.

-no_tex_defs
Same  as  setting: $TEXDEFS = 0; (default is 1) When$TEXDEFS is
set (default) the file texdefs.perl will be read. This  provides
code  to allow common TEX commands like \def, \newbox, \newdimen
and others, to be recognised,  especially  within  the  document
preamble.  In the case of \def, the definition may even be fully
interpreted, but this requires the pattern-matching  to  be  not
too complicated.  If $TEXDEFS is â€˜0â€™ or empty, then texdefs.perl will not be loaded; the translator will make no attempt to interpret any raw TEX commands. This feature is intended to enable sophisticated authors the ability to insert arbitrary TEX commands in environments that are destined to be processed by LaTeX anyway; e.g. figures, theorems, pictures, etc. However this should rarely be needed, as now there is better support for these types of environment. There are now other methods to spec- ify which chunks of code are to be passed to LaTeX for explicit image-generation; see the discussion of the makeimage environ- ment. -external_file <filename> Same as setting:$EXTERNAL_FILE  = <filename> ; Specifies the
prefix of the .aux file that this  document  should  read.   The
.aux  extension  will be appended to this prefix to get the com-
plete filename, with directory path if needed.  This file  could
contain necessary information regarding citations, figure, table
and section numbers from LaTeX  and  perhaps  other  information
also.  Use  of  this switch is vital for document segments, pro-
cessed separately and linked to appear as if  generated  from  a
single LaTeX document.

-font_size <size>
Same as setting: $FONT_SIZE = <size> ; This option provides bet- ter control over the font size of environments made into images using LaTeX. <size> must be one of the font sizes that LaTeX recognizes; i.e. â€˜10ptâ€™, â€˜11ptâ€™, â€˜12ptâ€™, etc. Default is â€˜10ptâ€™, or whatever option may have been specified on the \documentclass or \documentstyle line. Whatever size is selected, it will be magnified by the installation variables$MATH_SCALE_FACTOR,
$FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR and$DISP_SCALE_FACTOR  as   appropriate.
Note:  This  switch provides no control over the size of text on
the HTML pages. Such control is subject entirely to  the  userâ€™s
choices of settings for the browser windows.

-scalable_fonts
Same as setting: $SCALABLE_FONTS = 1; This is used when scalable fonts, such as PostScript versions of the TEX fonts, are avail- able for image-generation. It has the effect of setting$PK_GENERATION to â€˜1â€™, and $DVIPS_MODE to be empty, overriding any previous settings for these variables. -no_math Same as setting:$NO_SIMPLE_MATH = 1; Ordinarily simple mathe-
matical expressions are set using the ordinary  text  font,  but
italiced.  When  part  of  the expression can not be represented
this way, an image is made of the whole formula. This is  called
â€˜â€˜simple mathâ€™â€™. When $NO_SIMPLE_MATH is set, then all mathemat- ics is made into images, whether simple or not. However, if the math extension is loaded, using the -html_version switch described earlier, then specifying -no_math produces a quite different effect. Now it is the special <MATH> tags and entities which are cancelled. In their place a sophisticated scheme for parsing mathematical expressions is used. Images are made of those sub-parts of a formula which cannot be adequately expressed using (italiced) text characters and <SUB> and <SUP> tags. See the subsection on mathematics for more details. -local_icons Same as setting:$LOCAL_ICONS = 1; A copy of each of  the  icons
actually  used  within  the  document is placed in the directory
along with the HTML files and generated images. This allows  the
whole  document  to  be fully self-contained, within this direc-
tory; otherwise the icons must  be  retrieved  from  a  (perhaps
remote)  server.  The icons are normally copied from a subdirec-
tory of the

$LATEX2HTMLDIR, set within latex2html.config. An alternative set of icons can be used by specifying a (relative) directory path in$ALTERNA-
TIVE_ICONS to where the customised images can be found.

-init_file <file>
Load the specified initialisation file. This Perl file  will  be
loaded after loading $HOME/.latex2html-init, or .latex2html-init in the local directory, if either file exists. It is read at the time the switch is processed, so the contents of the file may change any of the values of any of the variables that were pre- viously established, as well as any default options. More than one initialisation file can be read in this way. [change_begin]98.1 -no_fork Same as setting:$NOFORK = 1; When set this disables a feature
in the early part of the processing whereby  some  memory-inten-
sive  operations are performed by â€˜forkedâ€™ child processes. Some
single-task operating systems, such as DOS, do not support  this
feature.  Having $NOFORK set then ensures that unnecessary file- handles that are needed with the forked processes, are not con- sumed unnecessarily, perhaps resulting in a fatal Perl error. -iso_language <type> This enables you to specify a different language type than â€™ENâ€™ to be used in the DTD entries of the HTML document, e.g. â€™EN.USâ€™. [change_end] 98.1 -short_index Same as setting:$SHORT_INDEX = 1; Creates shorter Index list-
ings, using codified links; this is fully  compatible  with  the
makeidx package.

-no_footnode
Same  as setting: $NO_FOOTNODE = 1; Suppresses use of a separate file for footnotes; instead these are placed at the bottom of the HTML pages where the references occur. When this option is used, it is frequently desirable to change the style of the marker used to indicate the presence of a footnote. This is done as in LaTeX, using code such as follows. \renewcommand{\the- footnote}{\arabic{footnote}} All the styles \arabic, \alph, \roman, \Alph and \Roman are available. [change_begin]98.1 -numbered_footnotes Same as setting:$NUMBERED_FOOTNOTES = 1; If  this  is  set  you
will  get  every  footnote  applied with a subsequent number, to

Same as setting: $ADDRESS = <author-address> ; Sign each page with this address. See latex2html.config for an example using Perl code to automatically include the date. A user-defined Perl subroutine called &custom_address can be used instead, if defined; it takes the value of$ADDRESS as  a  parameter,  which
may  be  used  or  ignored  as  desired.  At  the time when this
subroutine will be called, variables named $depth,$title, $file hold the sectioning-level, title and filename of the HTML page being produced;$FILE holds the name of  the  filename  for  the
title-page of the whole document.

-info <string>
Same  as  setting:  $INFO = <string> ; Generate a new section â€˜â€˜About this documentâ€™â€™ containing information about the docu- ment being translated. The default is to generate such a section with information on the original document, the date, the user and the translator. An empty string (or the value â€˜0â€™) disables the creation of this extra section. If a non-empty string is given, it will be placed as the contents of the â€˜â€˜About this documentâ€™â€™ page instead of the default information.  ## Switches controlling Image Generation  These switches affect whether images are created at all, whether old images are reused on subsequent runs or new ones created afresh, and whether anti-aliasing effects are used within the images themselves. -ascii_mode Same as setting:$ASCII_MODE = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use only ASCII characters and do not include any images in the final out- put. With -ascii_mode the output of the translator can be used on character-based browsers, such as lynx, which do not support inlined images (via the <IMG> tag). -nolatex Same as setting:$NOLATEX = 1; Disable the mechanism for passing
unknown  environments  to  LaTeX  for  processing.  This  can be
thought of as â€˜â€˜draft modeâ€™â€™ which allows faster translation  of
the  basic  document  structure and text, without fancy figures,
equations or tables.  (This option has been  superseded  by  the
-no_images option, see below.)

-external_images
Same  as setting: $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Instead of including any generated images inside the document, leave them outside the document and provide hypertext links to them. -ps_images Same as setting:$PS_IMAGES = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use links to external PostScript files rather than inlined images in the cho- sen graphics format. -discard Same as setting:$DISCARD_PS = 1; The temporary PostScript files
are discarded immediately after they have been  used  to  create
the image in the desired graphics format.

-no_images
Same  as  setting: $NO_IMAGES = 1; Do not attempt to produce any inlined images. The missing images can be generated â€˜â€˜off-lineâ€™â€™ by restarting LaTeX2HTML with the option -images_only . -images_only Same as setting:$IMAGES_ONLY = 1; Try to convert any inlined
images that were left over from previous runs of LaTeX2HTML.

-reuse <reuse_option>
Same as setting: $REUSE = <reuse_option>; This switch specifies the extent to which image files are to be shared or recycled. There are three valid options: [*] 0 Do not ever share or recy- cle image files. This choice also invokes an interactive ses- sion prompting the user about what to do about a pre-existing HTML directory, if it exists. [*] 1 Recycle image files from a previous run if they are available, but do not share identical images that must be created in this run. [*] 2 Recycle image files from a previous run and share identical images from this run. This is the default. A later section provides additional information about image-reuse. -no_reuse Same as setting:$REUSE = 0; Do not share or recycle images gen-
erated  during  previous  translations.   This  is equivalent to
-reuse 0 . (This will enable  the  initial  interactive  session
during  which  the user is asked whether to reuse the old direc-
tory, delete its contents or quit.)

-antialias
Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS = 1; (Default is 0.) Generated images of figure environments and external PostScript files should use anti-aliasing. By default anti-aliasing is not used with these images, since this may interfere with the contents of the images themselves. -antialias_text Same as setting:$ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 1; (Default is  1.)   Gener-
ated  images of typeset material such as text, mathematical for-
mulas, tables and the content of makeimage environments,  should
use anti-aliasing effects.  The default is normally to use anti-
aliasing for text, since the resulting images are  much  clearer
on-screen. However the default may have been changed locally.

-no_antialias
Same  as  setting:  $ANTI_ALIAS = 0; (Default is 0.) Generated images of figure environments and external PostScript files should not use anti-aliasing with images, though the local default may have been changed to use it. -no_antialias_text Same as setting:$ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 0; (Default is  1.)   Gener-
ated  images  of  typeset  material should not use anti-aliasing
effects.  Although  on-screen  images  of  text  are  definitely
improved  using  anti-aliasing,  printed  images  can  be  badly
blurred, even at 300dpi. Higher resolution printers  do  a  much
better    job    with    the    resulting   grey-scale   images.
[change_begin]98.1

-white Same as setting: $WHITE_BACKGROUND = 1; (Default is 1.) Ensures that images of figure environments have a white background. Otherwise transparency effects may not work correctly. -no_white Same as setting:$WHITE_BACKGROUND = â€™â€™; (Default is  1.)   Can-
cels the requirement that figure environments have a white back-
ground.

-ldump Same as setting: $LATEX_DUMP = 1; (Default is 0.) Use this if you want to speed up image processing during the 2nd and subse- quent runs of LaTeX2HTML on the same document. The translator now produces a LaTeX format-dump of the preamble to images.tex which is used on subsequent runs. This significantly reduces the startup time when LaTeX reads the images.tex file for image-gen- eration. This process actually consumes additional time on the first run, since LaTeX is called twice -- once to create the format-dump, then again to load and use it. The pay-off comes with the faster loading on subsequent runs. Approximately 1 Meg of disk space is consumed by the dump file. [change_end] 98.1  ## Switches controlling Navigation Panels  The following switches govern whether to include one or more navigation panels on each HTML page, also which buttons to include within such a panel. -no_navigation Same as setting:$NO_NAVIGATION = 1; Disable the  mechanism  for
tings of the $TOP_NAVIGATION,$BOTTOM_NAVIGATION and $AUTO_NAVI- GATION variables. -top_navigation Same as setting:$TOP_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
the top of each page.

Same as setting: $BOTTOM_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at the bottom of each page as well as the top. -auto_navigation Same as setting:$AUTO_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
the top of each page. Also put one at the bottom of the page, if
the page exceeds $WORDS_IN_PAGE number of words (default = 450). -next_page_in_navigation Same as setting:$NEXT_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the
next logical page in the navigation panel.

Same as setting: $PREVIOUS_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the previous logical page in the navigation panel. -contents_in_navigation Same as setting:$CONTENTS_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to  the
table-of-contents in the navigation panel if there is one.

Same  as  setting:  $INDEX_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the index-page in the navigation panel if there is an index.  ## Switches for Linking to other documents  When processing a single stand-alone document, the switches described in this section should not be needed at all, since the automatically generated navigation panels, described on the previous page should gen- erate all the required navigation links. However if a document is to be regarded as part of a much larger document, then links from its first and final pages, to locations in other parts of the larger (virtual) document, need to be provided explicitly for some of the buttons in the navigation panel. The following switches allow for such links to other documents, by providing the title and URL for navigation panel hyper- links. In particular, the â€˜â€˜Document Segmentationâ€™â€™ feature necessarily makes great use of these switches. It is usual for the text and targets of these navigation hyperlinks to be recorded in a Makefile, to avoid tedious typing of long command-lines having many switches. -up_url <URL> Same as setting:$EXTERNAL_UP_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a univer-
sal  resource  locator (URL) to associate with the â€˜â€˜UPâ€™â€™ button

-up_title <string>
Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a title associated with this URL. -prev_url <URL> Same as setting:$EXTERNAL_PREV_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a URL
to associate with the  â€˜â€˜PREVIOUSâ€™â€™  button  in  the  navigation
panel(s).

-prev_title <string>
Same  as  setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a title associated with this URL. -down_url <URL> Same as setting:$EXTERNAL_DOWN_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies  a  URL
for the â€˜â€˜NEXTâ€™â€™ button in the navigation panel(s).

-down_title <string>
Same  as  setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a title associated with this URL. -contents <URL> Same as setting:$EXTERNAL_CONTENTS = <URL> ;  Specifies  a  URL
for  the  â€˜â€˜CONTENTSâ€™â€™  button, for document segments that would
not otherwise have one.

-index <URL>
Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_INDEX = <URL> ; Specifies a URL for the â€˜â€˜INDEXâ€™â€™ button, for document segments that otherwise would not have an index. -biblio <URL> Same as setting:$EXTERNAL_BIBLIO = <URL> ;  Specifies  the  URL
for  the  bibliography page to be used, when not explicitly part
of the document itself.  Warning: On some systems it  is  diffi-
cult  to give text-strings <string> containing space characters,
on the command-line or via a Makefile. One way to overcome  this
is  to use the corresponding variable. Another way is to replace
the spaces with underscores (_).



## Switches for Help and Tracing

       The first two of the  following  switches  are  self-explanatory.  When
problems  arise in processing a document, the switches -debug and -ver-
bosity will each cause  LaTeX2HTML  to  generate  more  output  to  the
screen.  These  extra  messages  should help to locate the cause of the
problem.

-tmp <path>
Define a temporary directory to use  for  image  generation.  If
<path> is 0, the standard temporary directory /tmp is used.

-h(elp)
Print out the list of all command-line options.

-v     Print the current version of LaTeX2HTML.

-debug Same  as setting: $DEBUG = 1; Run in debug-mode, displaying mes- sages and/or diagnostic information about files read, and utili- ties called by LaTeX2HTML. Shows any messages produced by these calls. More extensive diagnostics, from the Perl debugger, can be obtained by appending the string â€˜-w-â€™ to the 1st line of the latex2html (and other) Perl script(s). -verbosity <num> Same as setting:$VERBOSITY = <num>; Display messages  revealing
certain aspects of the processing performed by LaTeX2HTML on the
provided input file(s). The <num> parameter can be an integer in
the  range  0  to 8. Each higher value adds to the messages pro-
duced.

0.     No special tracing; as  for  versions  of  LaTeX2HTML  prior  to
V97.1.

1.     (This is the default.) Show section-headings and the correspond-
ing HTML file names, and indicators that  major  stages  in  the
processing have been completed.

2.     Print environment names and identifier numbers, and new theorem-
types. Show warnings as they  occur,  and  indicators  for  more
stages of processing. Print names of files for storing auxiliary
data arrays.

3.     Print command names as they are encountered and processed;  also
any  unknown  commands  encountered  while  pre-processing. Show
names of new  commands,  environments,  theorems,  counters  and
counter-dependencies, for each document partition.

4.     Indicate  command-substitution  the pre-process of math-environ-
ments. Print the contents of unknown environments for processing
in  LaTeX, both before and after reverting to LaTeX source. Show
all operations affecting  the  values  of  counters.  Also  show
links,  labels and sectioning keys, at the stages of processing.

5.     Detail the processing in the document preamble.  Show  substitu-
tions  of  new environments. Show the contents of all recognised
environments,  both  before  and  after  processing.  Show   the
cached/encoded  information  for  the  image  keys, allowing two
images to be tested for equality.

6.     Show replacements of new commands, accents and wrapped commands.

7.     Trace  the  processing of commands in math mode; both before and
after.

8.     Trace the processing of all commands,  both  before  and  after.
The  command-line option sets an initial value only. During pro-
cessing the value of $VERBOSITY can be set dynamically using the \htmltracing{...} command, whose argument is the desired value, or by using the more general \HTMLset command as follows: \HTMLset{VERBOSITY}{<num>}.  ## Other Configuration Variables, without switches  The configuration variables described here do not warrant having a com- mand-line switch to assign values. Either they represent aspects of LaTeX2HTML that are specific to the local site, or they govern proper- ties that should apply to all documents, rather than something that typically would change for the different documents within a particular sub-directory. Normally these variables have their value set within the latex2html.config file. In the following listing the defaults are shown, as the lines of Perl code used to establish these values. If a different value is required, then these can be assigned from a local .latex2html-init initialisation file, without affecting the defaults for other users, or documents processed from other directories.$dd    holds  the  string  to be used in file-names to delimit directo-
ries; it is set internally  to  â€˜/â€™,  unless  the  variable  has
already  been  given  a  value within latex2html.config .  Note:
This value cannot be set within a  .latex2html-init  initialisa-
tion  file,  since  its value needs to be known in order to find
such a file.

$LATEX2HTMLDIR Read by the install-test script from latex2html.config, its value is inserted into the latex2html Perl script as part of the installation process.$LATEX2HTMLSTYLES = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/styles ; Read from the latex2html.config file by install-test, its value is checked to locate the styles/ directory.$LATEX2HTMLVERSIONS = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/versions ; The value of this variable should be set within latex2html.con- fig to specify the directory path where the version and exten- sion files can be found.$ALTERNATIVE_ICONS = â€â€™â€â€™;
This  may contain the (relative) directory path to a set of cus-
tomised icons to be used in conjunction  with  the  -local_icons
switch.

$TEXEXPAND =$LATEX2HTMLDIR/texexpand ;
Read by the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its
value is used to locate the texexpand Perl script.

$PSTOIMG =$LATEX2HTMLDIR/pstoimg ;
Read by the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its
value is used to locate the pstoimg Perl script.

$IMAGE_TYPE = â€â€™<image-type>â€â€™; Set in latex2html.config, the currently supported <image-type>s are: gif and png.$DVIPS = â€â€™dvipsâ€â€™;
Read  from  latex2html.config  by  install-test,  its  value  is
checked  to  locate the dvips program or script.  There could be
several reasons to  change  the  value  here:  o  add  a  switch
-P<printer> to load a specific configuration-file; e.g. to use a
specific set of PostScript fonts, for improved image-generation.
o  to  prepend  a path to a different version of dvips than nor-
mally  available  as  the  system  default  (e.g.  the  printing
requirements are different).  o to append debugging switches, in
case of poor quality images; one can see which paths  are  being
searched  for  fonts and other resources.  o to prepend commands
for setting path variables that  dvips  may  need  in  order  to
locate  fonts  or  other  resources.  If automatic generation of
fonts is required, using Metafont, the  following  configuration
variables are important.

$PK_GENERATION = 1; This variable must be set, to initiate font-generation; otherwise fonts will be scaled from existing resources on the local system. In particular this variable must not be set, if one wishes to use PostScript fonts or other scalable font resources (see the -scalable_fonts switch).$DVIPS_MODE = â€â€™toshibaâ€â€™;
The mode given here must be  available  in  the  modes.mf
file,  located  with the Metafont resource files, perhaps
in the misc/ subdirectory.

$METAFONT_DPI = 180; The required resolution, in dots-per-inch, should be listed specifically within the MakeTeXPK script, called by dvips to invoke Metafont with the correct parameters for the required fonts.$LATEX = â€â€™latexâ€â€™;
Read  from  latex2html.config  by  install-test,  its  value  is
checked to locate the latex program or script.  If LaTeX is hav-
ing  trouble  finding  style-files  and/or  packages,  then  the
default command can be prepended  with  other  commands  to  set
environment  variables  intended  to resolve these difficulties;
e.g.  $LATEX = â€™setenv TEXINPUTS <path to search> ; latexâ€™ . There are several variables to help control exactly which files are read by LaTeX2HTML and by LaTeX when processing images:$TEXINPUTS
This is normally set from the environment variable of the
same name. If difficulties occur so that styles and pack-
ages are not being found, then extra paths can be  speci-
fied here, to resolve these difficulties.

$DONT_INCLUDE This provides a list of filenames and extensions to not include, even if requested to do so by an \input or \include command. (Consult latex2html.config for the default list.)$DO_INCLUDE = â€â€™â€â€™;
List of exceptions within the $DONT_INCLUDE list. These files are to be read if requested by an \input or \include command.$ICONSERVER = â€â€™<URL>â€â€™;
This is used to specify a URL to find  the  standard  icons,  as
used  for the navigation buttons.  Names for the specific images
size,  as  well  as  size   information,   can   be   found   in
latex2html.config.  The icons themselves can be replaced by cus-
tomised versions, provided this information is correctly updated
and the location of the customised images specified as the value
of $ICONSERVER. When the -local_icons switch is used, so that a copy of the icons is placed with the HTML files and other gener- ated images, the value of$ICONSERVER is not needed  within  the
HTML files themselves. However it is needed to find the original
icons to be copied to the local directory.

NAV_BORDER = <num>; The value given here results in a border, measured in points, around each icon. A value of â€˜0â€™ is common, to maintain strict alignment of inactive and active buttons in the control panels.LINKNAME = â€â€™"index.$EXTN"â€â€™; This is used when the$NO_AUTO_LINK variable is empty, to allow
a URL to the working directory to be  sufficient  to  reach  the
main  page  of  the completed document. It specifies the name of
the HTML file which will be automatically linked to  the  direc-
tory  name.   The  value  of $EXTN is .html unless$SHORTEXTN is
set, in which case it is .htm .

$LINKPOINT = â€â€™"$FILE$EXTN"â€â€™; This specifies the name of the HTML file to be duplicated, or symbolically linked, with the name specified in$LINKNAME.  At
the appropriate time the value of $FILE is the document name, which usually coincides with the name of the working directory.$CHARSET = â€â€™iso_8859_1â€â€™;
This specifies the character set used within the HTML pages pro-
duced  by  LaTeX2HTML.  If no value is set in a configuration or
initialisation file, the default value will be assumed. The low-
ercase  form $charset is also recognised, but this is overridden by the uppercase form.$ACCENT_IMAGES = â€â€™largeâ€â€™;
Accented characters that are not part of the ISO-Latin fonts can
be generated by making an image using LaTeX.  This variable con-
tains a (comma-separated) list of LaTeX commands for setting the
style  to  be  used  when these images are made. If the value of
this variable is empty then the accent is simply ignored,  using
an  un-accented  font  character (not an image) instead.  Within
the color.perl package, the  following  variables  are  used  to
identify  the names of files containing specifications for named
colors.  Files  having  these  names  are   provided,   in   the
$LATEX2HTMLSTYLES directory, but they could be moved elsewhere, or replaced by alternative files having different names. In such a case the values of these variables should be altered accordingly.$RGBCOLORFILE = â€™rgb.txtâ€™;
$CRAYOLAFILE = â€™crayola.txtâ€™; The following variables may well be altered from the system defaults, but this is best done using a local .latex2html-init initialisation file, for overall con- sistency of style within documents located at the same site, or sites in close proximity.$default_language = â€â€™englishâ€â€™;
This establishes which language code is to be placed within  the
<!DOCTYPE ... > tag that may appear at the beginning of the HTML
can  be expected to change the value of this variable.  See also
the $TITLES_LANGUAGE variable, described next.$TITLES_LANGUAGE = â€â€™englishâ€â€™;
This variable is used to specify the  actual  strings  used  for
standard    document    sections,    such    as    â€˜â€˜Contentsâ€™â€™,
and  German titles is available in corresponding packages. Load-
ing such a package will normally alter the value of  this  vari-
able, as well as the $default_language variable described above.$WORDS_IN_NAVIGATION_PANEL_TITLES = 4;
Specifies how many words to use from section titles, within  the

$WORDS_IN_PAGE = 450; Specifies the minimum page length required before a navigation panel is placed at the bottom of a page, when the$AUTO_NAVIGA-
TION variable is set.

$CHILDLINE = <BR><HR>; This gives the HTML code to be placed between the child-links table and the ordinary contents of the page on which it occurs.$NETSCAPE_HTML = 0;
When  set, this variable specifies that HTML code may be present
which does not conform to any official standard. This  restricts
the  contents  of any <!DOCTYPE ... > tag which may be placed at
the beginning of the HTML pages produced.

$BODYTEXT = â€â€™â€â€™; The value of this variable is used within the <BODY ... > tag; e.g. to set text and/or background colors. Itâ€™s value is over- ridden by the \bodytext command, and can be added-to or parts changed using the \htmlbody command or \color and \pagecolor from the color package.$INTERLACE = 1;
When set, interlaced images should be produced.   This  requires
graphics  utilities  to  be available to perform the interlacing
operation.

$TRANSPARENT_FIGURES = 1; When set, the background of images should be made transparent; otherwise it is white. This requires graphics utilities to be available which can specify the color to be made transparent.$FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
Scale factor applied to all images of figure and other  environ-
ments,  when  being made into an image.  Note that this does not
apply to recognised mathematics environments, which instead  use
the  contents  of  $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR and$DISP_SCALE_FACTOR to
specify scaling.

$MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6; Scale factor applied to all images of mathematics, both inline and displayed. A value of 1.4 is a good alternative, with anti- aliased images.$DISP_SCALE_FACTOR = 1;
Extra scale factor applied to images of displayed math  environ-
ments.   When  set,  this value multiplies $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR to give the total scaling. A value of â€˜1.2â€™ is a good choice to accompany$MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.4;.

$EXTRA_IMAGE_SCALE This may hold an extra scale factor that can be applied to all generated images. When set, it specifies that a scaling of$EXTRA_IMAGE_SCALE  be  applied  when images are created, but to
have their height and width recorded as the un-scaled size. This
is  to coax browsers into scaling the (usually larger) images to
fit the desired size; when  printed  a  better  quality  can  be
obtained.  Values  of  â€˜1.5â€™  and â€˜2â€™ give good print quality at
600dpi.

$PAPERSIZE = â€â€™a5â€â€™; Specifies the size of a page for typesetting figures or dis- played math, when an image is to be generated. This affects the lengths of lines of text within images. Since images of text or mathematics should use larger sizes than when printed, else clarity is lost at screen resolutions, then a smaller paper-size is generally advisable. This is especially so if both the$MATH_SCALE_FACTOR and $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR scaling factors are being used, else some images may become excessively large, including a lot of blank space.$LINE_WIDTH = 500;
Formerly specified the width of an image, when the contents were
to be right- or center-justified. (No longer used.)

The  following variables are used to access the utilities required dur-
ing image-generation. File and program locations on  the  local  system
are  established by the configure-pstoimg Perl script and stored within
$LATEX2HTMLDIR/local.pm as Perl code, to be read by pstoimg when required. After running the configure-pstoimg Perl script it should not be necessary to alter the values obtained. Those shown below are what happens on the authorâ€™s system; they are for illustration only and do not represent default values.$GS_LIB = â€™/usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.02â€™;
$PNMCAT = â€™/usr/local/bin/pnmcatâ€™;$PPMQUANT = â€™/usr/local/bin/ppmquantâ€™;
$PNMFLIP = â€™/usr/local/bin/pnmflipâ€™;$PPMTOGIF = â€™/usr/local/bin/ppmtogifâ€™;
$HOWTO_TRANSPARENT_GIF = â€™netpbmâ€™;$GS_DEVICE = â€™pnmrawâ€™;
$GS = â€™/usr/local/bin/gsâ€™;$PNMFILE = â€™/usr/local/bin/pnmfileâ€™;
$HOWTO_INTERLACE_GIF = â€™netpbmâ€™;$PBMMAKE = â€™/usr/local/bin/pbmmakeâ€™;
$PNMCROP = â€™/usr/local/bin/pnmcropâ€™;$TMP = â€™/usr/var/tmpâ€™; The following variables are no  longer  needed,
having  been  replaced  by the more specific information obtained using
the Perl script configure-pstoimg.
$USENETPBM = 1;$PBMPLUSDIR = â€™/usr/local/binâ€™;



       latex(1)



## AUTHOR

       Nikos Drakos,   Computer  Based  Learning  Unit,  University  of  Leeds
<nikos@cbl.leeds.ac.uk>.  Several  people have contributed suggestions,
ideas, solutions, support and encouragement.  The current maintainer is
Ross  Moore.   This  manual  page was written by Manoj Srivastava <sri-
vasta@debian.org>, for the Debian GNU/Linux system, based on the  LaTeX
documentation accompanying the program.

Debian                           March 1 2000                    LaTeX2HTML(1)


Man(1) output converted with man2html