lsof



LSOF(8)                                                                LSOF(8)




NAME

       lsof - list open files


SYNOPSIS

       lsof  [  -?abChlnNOPRstUvVX  ]  [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
       +|-D D ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k  ]  [
       +|-L  [l]  ]  [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t] ] [ -S
       [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x [fl] ]  [  -z  [z]  ]  [  --  ]
       [names]


DESCRIPTION

       Lsof  revision  4.74  lists information about files opened by processes
       for the following UNIX dialects:

            AIX 5.[123]
            Apple Darwin 6.x and 7.x for Power Macintosh systems
            BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
            DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.1
            FreeBSD 4.[2-9], 4.1[01], 5.[012] and 6.0 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.[012] and 6.0 for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64 based systems
            HP-UX 11.00 and 11.11
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            NetBSD 1.[456] and 2.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0123456] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            Caldera OpenUNIX 8
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,  a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
       socket.)  A specific file or all the files in  a  file  system  may  be
       selected by path.

       Instead  of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT-
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
       mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r [t] option description for more information.


OPTIONS

       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any  list  request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files, NFS files won’t be listed unless -N is also speci-
       fied; or if a user list is specified with the -u  option,  UNIX  domain
       socket  files,  belonging  to  users  not  in the list, won’t be listed
       unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated  are  ORed  -  i.e.,
       specifying  the  -i  option  without  an  address  and the -ufoo option
       produces a listing of all network files OR files belonging to processes
       owned  by  user ‘‘foo’’.  One exception is the ‘^’ (negated) login name
       or user ID (UID) specified with the -u option.  Since it is  an  exclu-
       sion, it is applied without ORing or ANDing and takes effect before any
       other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example, specify-
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ‘‘foo’’.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to  be  ANDed;
       it can’t be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by placing it between them, even though its placement there is  accept-
       able.   Wherever  -a  is  placed, it causes the ANDing of all selection
       options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, net-
       work addresses, process identifiers, user identifiers, zone names - are
       joined in a single ORed set and applied before the result  participates
       in  ANDing.   Thus, for example, specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a,
       and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of files that  belong  to  either
       login  ‘‘fff’’  OR  ‘‘ggg’’ AND have network connections to either host
       aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g.,  the
       option  set  ‘‘-a -b -C’’ may be stated as -abC.  However, since values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -S, -T, -x and
       -z.   when  you  have  no values for them be careful that the following
       character isn’t ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier character fol-
       lowing the -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a  new  option
       with  a  ‘-’ character - e.g., ‘‘-F -n’’.  If the next option is a file
       name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ‘‘--’’ - e.g., ‘‘-F  --
       name’’.

       Either  the ‘+’ or the ‘-’ prefix may be applied to a group of options.
       Options that don’t take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ‘‘+M -i’’ may
       be stated as ‘‘+Mi’’ and the group  means  the  same  as  the  separate
       options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group does take on separate meanings under different prefixes  -  e.g.,
       +|-M; ‘‘-iM’’ is not the same request as ‘‘-i +M’’.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These two equivalent options  select  a  usage  (help)  output
                list.   Lsof  displays a shortened form of this output when it
                detects an error in the options supplied to it, after  it  has
                displayed  messages  explaining  each  error.  (Escape the ‘?’
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       This option causes list selection  options  to  be  ANDed,  as
                described above.

       -A A     This  option  is available on systems configured for AFS whose
                AFS kernel code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows
                the  lsof  user  to  specify  A as an alternate name list file
                where the kernel addresses of the  dynamic  modules  might  be
                found.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                for more information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and
                how they affect lsof.

       -b       This  option  causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might
                block - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS  sec-
                tions for information on using this option.

       -c c     This option selects the listing of files for processes execut-
                ing the command that begins with the characters of c.   Multi-
                ple  commands  may  be  specified,  using multiple -c options.
                They are joined in a single ORed set before  participating  in
                AND option selection.

                If  c  begins  and  ends  with  a  slash (’/’), the characters
                between the slashes is interpreted as  a  regular  expression.
                Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
                to prevent their interpretation by  the  shell.   The  closing
                slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See  the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The simple command specification is  tested  first.   If  that
                test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If the
                simple command test succeeds, the command  regular  expression
                test  isn’t  made.   This may result in ‘‘no command found for
                regex:’’ messages when lsof’s -V option is specified.

       +c w     This option defines the maximum number of  initial  characters
                of the name, supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command
                associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.
                (The lsof default is nine.)

                Note  that  many  UNIX dialects do not supply all command name
                characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
                obtains  command  name.   Often  dialects  limit the number of
                characters supplied in  those  sources.   For  example,  Linux
                2.4.27  and  Solaris  9  both  limit command name length to 16
                characters.

                If w is zero (’0’), all command characters supplied to lsof by
                the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ‘‘COMMAND’’,
                it will be raised to that length.

       -C       This option disables the reporting of any path name components
                from  the kernel’s name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE sec-
                tion for more information.

       +d s     This option causes lsof to search for all  open  instances  of
                directory  s  and the files and directories it contains at its
                top level.  This option does NOT descend the  directory  tree,
                rooted  at  s.   The  +D  D  option  may  be used to request a
                full-descent directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing of the +d option does  not  follow  symbolic  links
                within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does it search for open files on file system mount  points  on
                subdirectories  of  s  unless  the  -x or -x  f option is also
                specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option  limits  it  to
                searching  for  files  that the user has permission to examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     This option specifies a list  of  file  descriptors  (FDs)  to
                exclude  from  or  include  in  the  output listing.  The file
                descriptors are specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
                ‘‘cwd,1,3’’,  ‘‘^6,^2’’.   (There  should  be no spaces in the
                set.)

                The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set  begin
                with  ’^’.   It  is  an inclusion list if no entry begins with
                ’^’.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A file descriptor number range may be in the set  as  long  as
                neither  member  is  empty,  both members are numbers, and the
                ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g.,  ‘‘0-7’’
                or  ‘‘3-10’’.   Ranges  may be specified for exclusion if they
                have the  ’^’  prefix  -  e.g.,  ‘‘^0-7’’  excludes  all  file
                descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple  file  descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
                set before participating in AND option selection.

                When there are exclusion and inclusion  members  in  the  set,
                lsof  reports  them as errors and exits with a non-zero return
                code.

                See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output  values  in
                the  OUTPUT  section  for  more information on file descriptor
                names.

       +D D     This option causes lsof to search for all  open  instances  of
                directory  D  and all the files and directories it contains to
                its complete depth.

                Processing of the +D option does  not  follow  symbolic  links
                within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does it search for open files on file system mount  points  on
                subdirectories  of  D  unless  the  -x or -x  f option is also
                specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option  limits  it  to
                searching  for  files  that the user has permission to examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

                Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and  require
                a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
                must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at  D,  calling
                stat(2)  for  each  file and directory, building a list of all
                the files it finds, and searching that list for a  match  with
                every  open  file.  When directory D is large, these steps can
                take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     This option directs lsofs use of the device cache file.   The
                use  of  this  option is sometimes restricted.  See the DEVICE
                CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow  it  for  more
                information on this option.

                -D  must be followed by a function letter; the function letter
                may optionally be followed by a path  name.   Lsof  recognizes
                these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The  b,  r,  and  u functions, accompanied by a path name, are
                sometimes restricted.  When these  functions  are  restricted,
                they  will not appear in the description of the -D option that
                accompanies -h or -?  option output.   See  the  DEVICE  CACHE
                FILE section and the sections that follow it for more informa-
                tion on these functions and when they’re restricted.

                The ?  function reports the read-only  and  write  paths  that
                lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any envi-
                ronment variables whose values lsof will examine when  forming
                the  device  cache  file path, and the format for the personal
                device cache file path.  (Escape the  ‘?’  character  as  your
                shell requires.)

                When  available,  the b, r, and u functions may be followed by
                the  device  cache  file’s  path.   The  standard  default  is
                .lsof_hostname  in the home directory of the real user ID that
                executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof  was
                configured  and  compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h  and -?
                options show the current default prefix  -  e.g.,  ‘‘.lsof’’.)
                The  suffix,  hostname,  is  the first component of the host’s
                name returned by gethostname(2).

                When available, the b function directs lsof  to  build  a  new
                device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
                file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
                to the kernel.

                The  r  function  directs lsof to read the device cache at the
                default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
                device  cache  file  when  none  exists or the existing one is
                improperly structured.  The r function, when specified without
                a  path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or out-
                dated device cache file, or creating a new one in  its  place.
                The  r function is always available when it is specified with-
                out a path name argument; it may be restricted by the  permis-
                sions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
                cache file at the default or specified path, if possible,  and
                to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
                file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be inter-
                preted.   When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any combination
                it specifies that the listing of kernel file structure  infor-
                mation is to be enabled (‘+’) or inhibited (‘-’).

                Normally  a  path  name  argument is taken to be a file system
                name if it matches a mounted-on  directory  name  reported  by
                mount(8),  or  if  it  represents a block device, named in the
                mount output and associated with  a  mounted  directory  name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
                be file system names, and lsof will complain if any  are  not.
                This  can  be  useful,  for example, when the file system name
                (mounted-on device) isn’t a block device.   This  happens  for
                some CD-ROM file systems.

                When  -f  is specified by itself, all path name arguments will
                be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for example,  the  ‘‘-f --
                /’’  arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a ‘/’
                path name, not all open files in the ‘/’ (root) file system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated  and
                aren’t followed by a character (e.g., of the file or file sys-
                tem name) that might be taken as a  parameter.   For  example,
                use ‘‘--’’ after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
                requested with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally  inhib-
                ited,   and  is  not  available  for  some  dialects  -  e.g.,
                /proc-based Linux.  When the prefix to f is a plus sign (‘+’),
                these characters request file structure information:

                     c    file structure use count
                     f    file structure address
                     g    file flag abbreviations
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal
                     n    file structure node address

                When the prefix is minus (‘-’) the same characters disable the
                listing of the indicated values.

                File  structure  addresses,  use  counts,  flags,   and   node
                addresses  may  be used to detect more readily identical files
                inherited by child processes and identical  files  in  use  by
                different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by out-
                put columns holding the values and listed to identify  identi-
                cal  file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK or
                Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f     This option specifies a character list, f,  that  selects  the
                fields to be output for processing by another program, and the
                character that terminates each output field.  Each field to be
                output  is  specified with a single character in f.  The field
                terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed  to  NUL  (000).
                See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of
                the field identification characters and the field output  pro-
                cess.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all standard
                fields are selected (except the  raw  device  field  and  zone
                field  for  compatibility reasons) and the NL field terminator
                is used.

                When the field selection character list contains only  a  zero
                (‘0’),  all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
                for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
                used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field termi-
                nator character must be set with explicit  entries  in  f,  as
                described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When  a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
                not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -  specifica-
                tion of the field character - e.g., ‘‘-FR’’ - also selects the
                listing of the item.

                When the field selection character list  contains  the  single
                character  ‘?’,  lsof  will  display  a help list of the field
                identification characters.  (Escape the ‘?’ character as  your
                shell requires.)

       -g [s]   This  option  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
                whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers are
                in  the  comma-separated set s - e.g., ‘‘123’’ or ‘‘123,456’’.
                (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed  set  before
                participating in AND option selection.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
                When specified without a PGID set that’s all it does.

       -i [i]   This option selects the listing of files any of whose Internet
                address  matches the address specified in i.  If no address is
                specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and
                x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

                If  -i4  or  -i6  is specified with no following address, only
                files of the indicated IP version,  IPv4  or  IPv6,  are  dis-
                played.   (An  IPv6  specification  may  be  used  only if the
                dialects  supports  IPv6,  as  indicated   by   ‘‘[46]’’   and
                ‘‘IPv[46]’’  in lsofs -h or -?  output.)  Sequentially speci-
                fying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying  -i,  and
                vice-versa.   Specifying  -i4,  or -i6 after -i is the same as
                specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple addresses (up to a limit of  100)  may  be  specified
                with  multiple  -i  options.   (A  port number or service name
                range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An  Internet address is specified in the form (Items in square
                brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          ’6’ may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither ’4’ nor
                          ’6’ is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP or UDP.
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6 options may be used only if  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
                IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and spec-
                ify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
                of  the  -i  option contains ‘‘[46]’’ and ‘‘IPv[46]’’, IPv6 is
                supported.

                IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if  network
                file  selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names
                and addresses may not be specified if network  file  selection
                is  limited  to  IPv4  with  -i  4.  When an open IPv4 network
                file’s address is mapped in an IPv6 address, the  open  file’s
                type  will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be selected
                by ’6’, not ’4’.

                At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR  hostname
                , hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The ‘@’ character,
                leading the host specification, is always required; as is  the
                ‘:’,  leading the port specification.  Specify either hostname
                or hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port  number
                list.   If  a service name list is specified, the protocol may
                also need to be specified if the TCP and UDP port numbers  for
                the service name are different.  Use any case - lower or upper
                - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
                entries  are  separated  by  commas  and  whose  numeric range
                entries are separated by minus signs.  There may be no  embed-
                ded spaces, and all service names must belong to the specified
                protocol.  Since service  names  may  contain  embedded  minus
                signs,  the  staring entry of a range can’t be a service name;
                it can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:smtp-nameserver - TCP, ports smtp through
                          nameserver, host bar
                     :time - either TCP or UDP time service port

       -k k     This option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place  of
                /vmunix,  /mach,  etc.  This option is not available under AIX
                on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l       This option inhibits the conversion  of  user  ID  numbers  to
                login  names.   It  is  also  useful when login name lookup is
                working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This option enables (‘+’) or disables  (‘-’)  the  listing  of
                file link counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren’t
                available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When +L is specified without  a  following  number,  all  link
                counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default), no
                link counts will be listed.

                When +L is followed by a number,  only  files  having  a  link
                count  less  than  that number will be listed.  (No number may
                follow -L.)  A specification of the form ‘‘+L1’’  will  select
                open  files  that  have been unlinked.  A specification of the
                form ‘‘+aL1 <file_system>’’ will select unlinked open files on
                the specified file system.

                For  other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a
                post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m   This option specifies an alternate kernel memory file or acti-
                vates mount table supplement processing.

                The  option  form  -m  m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in
                place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The option form +m requests that a mount  supplement  file  be
                written  to  the  standard output file.  All other options are
                silently ignored.

                There will be a line in the mount  supplement  file  for  each
                mounted  file  system,  containing  the  mounted  file  system
                directory, followed by a single space, followed by the  device
                number in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof  can  use the mount supplement file to get device numbers
                for file systems  when  it  can’t  get  them  via  stat(2)  or
                lstat(2).

                The  option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

                Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for  all  sup-
                ported dialects.  Check the output of lsofs -h or -?  options
                to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper regis-
                trations  for  local TCP and UDP ports.  The default reporting
                mode is set  by  the  lsof  builder  with  the  HASPMAPENABLED
                #define  in  the dialect’s machine.h header file; lsof is dis-
                tributed  with  the  HASPMAPENABLED  #define  deactivated,  so
                portmapper  reporting  is  disabled  by  default  and  must be
                requested with +M.  Specifying lsofs -h or  -?   option  will
                report  the  default  mode.  Disabling portmapper registration
                when it is  already  disabled  or  enabling  it  when  already
                enabled is acceptable.  in a warning.

                When  portmapper  registration reporting is enabled, lsof dis-
                plays the portmapper registration (if any) for  local  TCP  or
                UDP  ports  in  square brackets immediately following the port
                numbers  or  service  names   -   e.g.,   ‘‘:1234[name]’’   or
                ‘‘:name[100083]’’.  The registration information may be a name
                or number, depending on what the registering program  supplied
                to the portmapper when it registered the port.

                When  portmapper  registration  reporting is enabled, lsof may
                run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
                the  portmapper  becomes  congested  or  stopped.  Reverse the
                reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration report-
                ing is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof consid-
                ers a TCP or UDP port local if: it is found in the local  part
                of its containing kernel structure; or if it is located in the
                foreign part of its containing kernel structure and the  local
                and  foreign  Internet  addresses  are  the  same; or if it is
                located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure
                and   the   foreign   Internet   address   is  INADDR_LOOPBACK
                (127.0.0.1).  This rule may  make  lsof  ignore  some  foreign
                ports  on  machines  with multiple interfaces when the foreign
                Internet address is on a different interface  from  the  local
                one.

                See  the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                further  discussion  of  portmapper   registration   reporting
                issues.

       -n       This option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host
                names for network files.  Inhibiting conversion may make  lsof
                run  faster.   It  is also useful when host name lookup is not
                working properly.

       -N       This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       This option directs lsof to display file offset at all  times.
                It  causes  the  SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to
                OFFSET.  Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can’t  obtain  accu-
                rate  or  consistent  file  offset information from its kernel
                data sources, sometimes just for  particular  kinds  of  files
                (e.g.,  socket  files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
                gives its location.)  for more information.

                The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can’t  both
                be  specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays what-
                ever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
                the type of the file.

       -o o     This  option  defines  the  number of decimal digits (o) to be
                printed after the ‘‘0t’’ for a file offset before the form  is
                switched to ‘‘0x...’’.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs
                lsof to use the ‘‘0t’’ form for all offset output.

                This option does NOT direct lsof  to  display  offset  at  all
                times;  specify  -o  (without  a  trailing number) to do that.
                This option only specifies the number of digits  after  ‘‘0t’’
                in  either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus,
                for example, to direct lsof to display  offset  at  all  times
                with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The  default number of digits allowed after ‘‘0t’’ is normally
                8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
                description  of  the -o o option in the output of the -h or -?
                option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       This option directs lsof to bypass the  strategy  it  uses  to
                avoid  being  blocked  by some kernel operations - i.e., doing
                them in forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS  AND  TIMEOUTS
                and  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS sections for more information on
                kernel operations that may block lsof.

                While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
                may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn’t respond to
                a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     This option selects the listing of  files  for  the  processes
                whose  ID  numbers  are  in  the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
                ‘‘123’’ or ‘‘123,456’’.  (There should be  no  spaces  in  the
                set.)

                Multiple  process  ID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set
                before participating in AND option selection.

       -P       This option inhibits the conversion of port  numbers  to  port
                names  for  network files.  Inhibiting the conversion may make
                lsof run a little faster.  It is also useful  when  host  name
                lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t] This  option  puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open
                files as selected by other options, delays t seconds  (default
                fifteen),  then  repeats  the  listing,  delaying  and listing
                repetitively until stopped by a condition defined by the  pre-
                fix to the option.

                If  the prefix is a ‘-’, repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be
                terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

                If the prefix is ‘+’, repeat mode will end the first cycle  no
                open  files  are  listed  - and of course when lsof is stopped
                with an interrupt or  quit  signal.   When  repeat  mode  ends
                because  no  files  are  listed, the process exit code will be
                zero if any open files were ever listed;  one,  if  none  were
                ever listed.

                Lsof  marks  the  end  of  each listing: if field output is in
                progress (the -F, option has been specified),  the  marker  is
                ‘m’; otherwise the marker is ‘‘========’’.  The marker is fol-
                lowed by a NL character.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi-
                cient  to  use this mode than to call lsof repetitively from a
                shell script, for example.

                To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec-
                ification  of  other  lsof selection options, so the amount of
                kernel memory access lsof does will  be  kept  to  a  minimum.
                Options  that  filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see  the
                -F,  option description) and a supervising awk or Perl script,
                or a C program.

       -R       This option directs lsof to list the Parent Process  IDentifi-
                cation number in the PPID column.

       -s       This  option  directs  lsof to display file size at all times.
                It causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to  be  changed  to
                SIZE.  If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

                The -o (without  a  following  decimal  digit  count)  and  -s
                options  are mutually exclusive; they can’t both be specified.
                When neither is specified, lsof displays whatever value - size
                or offset - is appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since some types of files don’t have  true  sizes  -  sockets,
                FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
                amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   This option specifies an optional time-out seconds  value  for
                kernel  functions  - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that
                might otherwise deadlock.  The  minimum  for  t  is  two;  the
                default,  fifteen;  when no value is specified, the default is
                used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   This option controls the reporting of  some  TCP/TPI  informa-
                tion,  also  reported  by  netstat(1),  following  the network
                addresses.  In normal output the information appears in paren-
                theses,  each  item except state identified by a keyword, fol-
                lowed by ‘=’, separated from others by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items val-
                ues (when available) are reported after the item name and ’=’.

                When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR  OTHER
                PROGRAMS.)   each  item  appears as a field with a ‘T’ leading
                character.

                -T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI  informa-
                tion reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
                TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.   State
                may  be  selected for all dialects and is reported by default.
                The -h or -?  help output for the -T  option  will  show  what
                selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When  -T  is used to select information - i.e., it is followed
                by one or more selection characters - the displaying of  state
                is  disabled  by  default,  and it must be explicitly selected
                again in the characters following -T.  (In effect,  then,  the
                default  is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths
                and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket options, socket states, some socket values,  TCP  flags
                and  one TCP value may be reported (when available in the UNIX
                dialect) in the form of the names that commonly  appear  after
                SO_,  so_,  SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect’s header files -
                most    often    <sys/socket.h>,     <sys/socketvar.h>     and
                <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the mean-
                ing of the flags, options, states and values.

                ‘‘SO=’’ precedes socket options and  values;  ‘‘SS=’’,  socket
                states; and ‘‘TF=’’, TCP flags and values.

                If  a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an ’=’
                and  the  name  --   e.g.,   ‘‘SO=LINGER=5’’,   ‘‘SO=QLIM=5’’,
                ‘‘TF=MSS=512’’.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     QLEN      listen queue length
                     QLIM      listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details  on what socket options and values, socket states, and
                TCP flags and values may  be  displayed  for  particular  UNIX
                dialects  may be found in the answer to the ‘‘Why doesn’t lsof
                report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and values
                for  my  dialect?’’  question in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
                gives its location.)

       -t       This option specifies that lsof should  produce  terse  output
                with  process  identifiers  only and no header - e.g., so that
                the output may be piped to kill(1).  This option  selects  the
                -w option.

       -u s     This  option  selects  the listing of files for the user whose
                login names or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated  set
                s  -  e.g.,  ‘‘abe’’,  or  ‘‘548,root’’.   (There should be no
                spaces in the set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                If  a login name or user ID is preceded by a ‘^’, it becomes a
                negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
                user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
                selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections;  it
                is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
                the listing of the files of  the  process.   For  example,  to
                direct  lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to root
                processes, specify ‘‘-u^root’’ or ‘‘-u^0’’.

       -U       This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       This option selects the listing of lsof  version  information,
                including:  revision  number;  when  the  lsof binary was con-
                structed; who constructed the binary and where;  the  name  of
                the  compiler  used  to construct the lsof binary; the version
                number of the compiler when readily  available;  the  compiler
                and loader flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
                information, typically the output of uname’s -a option.

       -V       This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to
                list  and failed to find - command names, file names, Internet
                addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs,  PGIDs,  and
                UIDs.

                When  other  options  are  ANDed  to  search  options, or com-
                pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
                not  report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed
                option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
                file containing the located search item.

                For example, ‘‘lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999’’ may not report
                a failure to locate open files at ‘‘TCP@foobar’’ and  may  not
                list  any,  if  none  have a file descriptor number of 999.  A
                similar situtation arises when HASSECURITY and  HASNOSOCKSECU-
                RITY  are defined at compile time and they prevent the listing
                of open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression  of  warning  mes-
                sages.

                The  lsof builder may choose to have warning messages disabled
                or enabled by default.  The default warning message  state  is
                indicated  in  the  output of the -h or -?  option.  Disabling
                warning messages when they are already  disabled  or  enabling
                them when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x  [fl] This  option  may  accompany  the  +d and +D options to direct
                their processing to cross over symbolic links and|or file sys-
                tem  mount points encountered when scanning the directory (+d)
                or directory tree (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without  a  following  parameter,
                cross-over  processing  of both symbolic links and file system
                mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified with-
                out a parameter, the next argument must begin with ’-’ or ’+’.

                The optional ’f’ parameter enables  file  system  mount  point
                cross-over  processing; ’l’, symbolic link cross-over process-
                ing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a  +d
                or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of
                executed text file and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function,
                its  use  on a busy AIX system might cause an application pro-
                cess to hang so completely that it can neither be  killed  nor
                stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of its
                happening, but I think there is a remote possibility it  could
                happen.

                By  default  use  of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above
                lsof may need setuid-root permission to  perform  the  actions
                this option requests.

                The  lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted
                to processes whose real UID is root.  If that has  been  done,
                the  -X  option  will  not appear in the -h or -?  help output
                unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The  default
                lsof  distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default
                it will appear in the help output.

                When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof  may  not  be  able  to
                report  information  for  all text and loader file references,
                but it may also avoid exacerbating  an  AIX  kernel  directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The  readx()  function,  used  by lsof or any other program to
                access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
                Stale  Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel’s dir_search()
                function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy
                of  a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another applica-
                tion process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to  search
                the   directory   -   e.g.,  by  using  open(2)  -  can  cause
                dir_search() to loop forever,  thus  hanging  the  application
                process.

                Consult  the  lsof  FAQ  (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more com-
                plete  description  of the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR, and
                methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

       -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to  be
                handled.

                Without  a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option speci-
                fies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output  col-
                umn.

                The  -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes
                lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.  Mul-
                tiple  -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to form
                a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in any of
                the  zones  will be listed, subject to other conditions speci-
                fied by other options and arguments.

       --       The double minus sign option is a marker that signals the  end
                of  the  keyed options.  It may be used, for example, when the
                first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
                when  the absence of a value for the last keyed option must be
                signified by the presence of a minus  sign  in  the  following
                option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These  are  path  names  of  specific files to list.  Symbolic
                links  are  resolved  before  use.   The  first  name  may  be
                separated from the preceding options with the ‘‘--’’ option.

                If  a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the
                device of the file system, lsof will list all the  files  open
                on  the file system.  To be considered a file system, the name
                must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output,  or
                match  the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on
                directory name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof  to
                consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
                (-f).

                If name is a path to a directory that is  not  the  mounted-on
                directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu-
                lar file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to  pro-
                cesses  that  have  it open as a file or as a process-specific
                directory, such as the root or current working directory.   To
                request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
                use the +d s and +D D options.

                If a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files  -
                e.  g,  AIX’s  /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list all the associated
                multipled  files  on  the  device  that  are  open   -   e.g.,
                /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If  a  name  is  a  UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually
                search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly as
                it  is  specified  and is recorded in the kernel socket struc-
                ture.  (See the next paragraph for an exception to  that  rule
                for  Linux.)   Specifying  a relative path - e.g., ./file - in
                place of the file’s absolute path - e.g.,  /tmp/file  -  won’t
                work  because  lsof must match the characters you specify with
                what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof
                is  able  to  search  for  it  by its device and inode number,
                allowing name to be a relative path.  The case  requires  that
                the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash (’/’) be
                used by the process that created  the  socket,  and  hence  be
                stored  in  the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires that lsof
                be able to obtain the device and  node  numbers  of  both  the
                absolute  path  in  /proc/net/unix  and  name  via  successful
                stat(2) system calls.  When those  conditions  are  met,  lsof
                will  be  able  to search for the UNIX domain socket when some
                path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if the
                path  is  /dev/log,  and  an lsof search is initiated when the
                working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open  files
                whose  device and inode match that of the specified path name.

                If you have also specified the -b option, the only  names  you
                may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
                supplies alternate device numbers.  See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL
                BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa-
                tion.

                Multiple file names are joined in a  single  ORed  set  before
                participating in AND option selection.


AFS

       Lsof  supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS
       versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not  been  tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof may
       recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties  recog-
       nizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects when AFS kernel support is  implemented  via  dynamic  modules
       whose  addresses  do not appear in the kernel’s variable name list.  In
       that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity  of  AFS  files,  and
       might  not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that is
       needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof  can’t  com-
       pute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A  A  option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may  be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more infor-
       mation  about  dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof
       options.

       Because AFS path lookups don’t seem to participate in the kernel’s name
       cache  operations,  lsof  can’t  identify  path name components for AFS
       files.


SECURITY

       Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.   First,  its
       default  compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with it.
       Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable  device
       cache  file  in  the  home  directory of the real user ID that executes
       lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may  be  dis-
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alter-
       nate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is  controlled  by  the  com-
       pile-time  HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY
       is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open  files.
       The  non-root  user may list only open files of processes with the same
       user IDentification number as the real user ID number of the lsof  pro-
       cess (the one that its user logged on with).

       However,  if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone
       may list open socket files, provided they  are  selected  with  the  -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help  output,  presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 0README file of the  lsof  distribution
       for  information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSE-
       CURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is  controlled  by  the  compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the DEVICE
       CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for details  on  how
       its  path  is  formed.   For security considerations it is important to
       note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user  ID  under
       which  lsof  is executed is root, the device cache file will be written
       in root’s home directory - e.g., / or /root.   When  HASDCACHE  is  not
       defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.   When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output will
       have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature  -  enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion  of
       it  in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE  CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user’s authority  to  read  them
       with  access(2).   This  is  intended to prevent whatever special power
       lsofs modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real user ID.


OUTPUT

       This  section  describes the information lsof lists for each open file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit charac-
       ters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms:  the
       C  ‘‘\[bfrnt]’’ form; the control character ‘^’ form (e.g., ‘‘^@’’); or
       hexadecimal leading ‘‘\x’’ form (e.g., ‘‘\xab’’).  Space is  non-print-
       able in the COMMAND column (‘‘\x20’’) and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE  is  defined  in the dialect’s
       machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8  bit  characters
       of  a  language  locale.   The lsof process must be supplied a language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a known
       language  locale in which the extended characters are considered print-
       able by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the  extended  characters
       non-printable  and prints them according to its rules for non-printable
       characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect’s setlocale(3) man page
       for  the names of other environment variables that may be used in place
       of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsofs language locale support for a dialect also covers  wide  charac-
       ters  -  e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined in
       the dialect’s machine.h header  file,  and  when  a  suitable  language
       locale has been defined in the appropriate environment variable for the
       lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions  if
       iswprint(3)  reports  them  to  be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a
       suitable language locale aren’t defined, or if iswprint(3) reports wide
       characters  that  aren’t  printable, lsof considers the wide characters
       non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according  to  its  rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult  the  answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee-
       ing  that  each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each
       column is separated from its predecessor by at least one space.

       COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of  the  UNIX
                  command  associated with the process.  If a non-zero w value
                  is specified to the +c w option,  the  column  contains  the
                  first  w  characters of the name of the UNIX command associ-
                  ated with the process up to the limit of characters supplied
                  to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the +c
                  w command or the lsof FAQ for  more  information.   The  FAQ
                  section gives its location.)

                  If  w  is  less  than the length of the column title, ‘‘COM-
                  MAND’’, it will be raised to that length.

                  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the  col-
                  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com-
                  mand associated with the process.

                  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in  its
                  structures  are  displayed  in field output when the command
                  name descriptor (‘c’) is  specified.   See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
                  OTHER  COMMANDS  section  for information on selecting field
                  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be
                  selected with the -z option.

       PPID       is  the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.
                  It is only displayed when the -R option has been  specified.

       PGID       is  the  process group IDentification number associated with
                  the process.  It is only displayed when the  -g  option  has
                  been specified.

       USER       is  the user ID number or login name of the user to whom the
                  process belongs, usually the  same  as  reported  by  ps(1).
                  However,  on  Linux USER is the user ID number or login that
                  owns the directory in /proc  where  lsof  finds  information
                  about  the process.  Usually that is the same value reported
                  by ps(1), but may differ when the process  has  changed  its
                  effective  user  ID.   (See  the  -l  option description for
                  information on when a user ID number or login name  is  dis-
                  played.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD  is  followed  by one of these characters, describing the
                  mode under which the file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       ‘-’ if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The mode character is followed by one of these lock  charac-
                  ters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x  for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the
                  file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on  the       entire
                  file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See  the  LOCKS  section  for  more  information on the lock
                  information character.

                  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for  pars-
                  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is  the  type  of  the node associated with the file - e.g.,
                  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ‘‘IPv4’’ for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ‘‘IPv6’’ for an open IPv6 network  file  -  even  if  its
                  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ‘‘ax25’’ for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ‘‘inet’’ for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ‘‘lla’’ for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ‘‘rte’’ for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ‘‘sock’’ for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ‘‘unix’’ for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ‘‘x.25’’ for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ‘‘BLK’’ for a block special file;

                  or ‘‘CHR’’ for a character special file;

                  or ‘‘DEL’’ for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ‘‘DIR’’ for a directory;

                  or ‘‘DOOR’’ for a VDOOR file;

                  or ‘‘FIFO’’ for a FIFO special file;

                  or ‘‘KQUEUE’’ for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ‘‘LINK’’ for a symbolic link file;

                  or ‘‘MPB’’ for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ‘‘MPC’’ for a multiplexed character file;

                  or  ‘‘NOFD’’ for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can’t
                  be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME  column,
                  followed by an error message;

                  or ‘‘PAS’’ for a /proc/as file;

                  or ‘‘PAXV’’ for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ‘‘PCRE’’ for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ‘‘PCTL’’ for a /proc control file;

                  or ‘‘PCUR’’ for the current /proc process;

                  or ‘‘PCWD’’ for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ‘‘PDIR’’ for a /proc directory;

                  or ‘‘PETY’’ for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ‘‘PFD’’ for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ‘‘PFDR’’ for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ‘‘PFIL’’ for an executable /proc file;

                  or ‘‘PFPR’’ for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ‘‘PGD’’ for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ‘‘PGID’’ for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ‘‘PIPE’’ for pipes;

                  or ‘‘PLC’’ for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ‘‘PLDR’’ for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ‘‘PLDT’’ for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ‘‘PLPI’’ for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ‘‘PLST’’ for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ‘‘PLU’’ for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ‘‘PLWG’’ for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ‘‘PLWI’’ for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ‘‘PLWS’’ for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ‘‘PLWU’’ for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ‘‘PLWX’’ for a /proc/xregs file’

                  or ‘‘PMAP’’ for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ‘‘PMEM’’ for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ‘‘PNTF’’ for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ‘‘POBJ’’ for a /proc/object file;

                  or ‘‘PODR’’ for a /proc/object directory;

                  or  ‘‘POLP’’  for  an  old format /proc light weight process
                  file;

                  or ‘‘POPF’’ for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ‘‘POPG’’ for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ‘‘PORT’’ for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ‘‘PREG’’ for a /proc register file;

                  or ‘‘PRMP’’ for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ‘‘PRTD’’ for a /proc root directory;

                  or ‘‘PSGA’’ for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ‘‘PSIN’’ for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ‘‘PSTA’’ for a /proc status file;

                  or ‘‘PSXSEM’’ for a POSIX sempahore file;

                  or ‘‘PSXSHM’’ for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ‘‘PUSG’’ for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ‘‘PW’’ for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ‘‘PXMP’’ for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ‘‘REG’’ for a regular file;

                  or ‘‘SMT’’ for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ‘‘STSO’’ for a stream socket;

                  or ‘‘UNNM’’ for an unnamed type file;

                  or ‘‘XNAM’’ for an OpenServer Xenix special file of  unknown
                  type;

                  or ‘‘XSEM’’ for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ‘‘XSD’’ for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file.

       FILE-ADDR  contains  the  kernel file structure address when f has been
                  specified to +f;

       FCT        contains the file  reference  count  from  the  kernel  file
                  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when  g  or  G has been specified to +f, this field contains
                  the contents of the f_flag[s]  member  of  the  kernel  file
                  structure  and  the kernel’s per-process open file flags (if
                  available); ‘G’ causes them to be displayed in  hexadecimal;
                  ‘g’,  as  short-hand  names; two lists may be displayed with
                  entries separated by commas, the lists separated by a  semi-
                  colon (‘;’); the first list may contain short-hand names for
                  f_flag[s] values from the following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this list of names was derived from F* #define’s in  dialect
                  header   files   <fcntl.h>,   <linux</fs.h>,  <sys/fcntl.c>,
                  <sys/fcntlcom.h>, and <sys/file.h>; see  the  lsof.h  header
                  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
                  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
                  names  for  kernel per-process open file flags from this ta-
                  ble:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique  identi-
                  fier  for  the  file node (usually the kernel vnode or inode
                  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
                  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains  the  device  numbers,  separated  by commas, for a
                  character special, block special, regular, directory or  NFS
                  file;

                  or ‘‘memory’’ for a memory file system node under DEC OSF/1,
                  Digital UNIX, or Tru64 UNIX;

                  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris  socket
                  stream;

                  or  a kernel reference address that identifies the file (The
                  kernel reference address may be used for FIFO’s,  for  exam-
                  ple.);

                  or  the  base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket
                  device.

                  Usually only the lower thirty two bits of DEC OSF/1, Digital
                  UNIX, or Tru64 UNIX kernel addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is  the  size  of  the  file or the file offset in bytes.  A
                  value is displayed in this column only if it  is  available.
                  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropri-
                  ate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

                  On some UNIX dialects lsof can’t obtain accurate or  consis-
                  tent  file  offset information from its kernel data sources,
                  sometimes just for particular kinds of files  (e.g.,  socket
                  files.)  In other cases, files don’t have true sizes - e.g.,
                  sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for their sizes the
                  content  amounts it finds in their kernel buffer descriptors
                  (e.g., socket buffer size counts or  TCP/IP  window  sizes.)
                  Consult  the  lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                  for more information.

                  The file size is displayed in decimal; the  offset  is  nor-
                  mally  displayed in decimal with a leading ‘‘0t’’ if it con-
                  tains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ‘‘0x’’
                  if  it  is  longer  than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o option
                  description for information on when 8 might default to  some
                  other value.)

                  Thus  the  leading ‘‘0t’’ and ‘‘0x’’ identify an offset when
                  the column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e.,  its
                  title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
                  column  OFFSET.   The  offset  always  begins with ‘‘0t’’ or
                  ‘‘0x’’ as described above.

                  The lsof user can control the switch from ‘‘0t’’  to  ‘‘0x’’
                  with  the  -o  o  option.   Consult its description for more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  size  (or  nothing  if  no size is available) and labels the
                  column SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually  exclusive;
                  they can’t both be specified.

                  For  files that don’t have a fixed size - e.g., don’t reside
                  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
                  about  the  current  size  or  position of the file if it is
                  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ‘‘TCP’’;

                  or ‘‘STR’’ for a stream;

                  or ‘‘CCITT’’ for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which  the
                  file resides;

                  or  the  name of a file specified in the names option (after
                  any symbolic links have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or the local and remote  Internet  addresses  of  a  network
                  file;  the  local  host  name  or IP number is followed by a
                  colon (’:’), the  port,  ‘‘->’’,  and  the  two-part  remote
                  address;  IP  addresses may be reported as numbers or names,
                  depending on the +|-M, -n, and -P  options;  colon-separated
                  IPv6   numbers   are   enclosed  in  square  brackets;  IPv4
                  INADDR_ANY and IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED  addresses,  and
                  zero  port  numbers  are represented by an asterisk (’*’); a
                  UDP destination address may be followed  by  the  amount  of
                  time  elapsed since the last packet was sent to the destina-
                  tion; TCP and  UDP  remote  addresses  may  be  followed  by
                  TCP/TPI  information in parentheses - state (e.g., ‘‘(ESTAB-
                  LISHED)’’, ‘‘(Unbound)’’), queue  sizes,  and  window  sizes
                  (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what netstat(1)
                  reports; see the -T option description or the description of
                  the  TCP/TPI  field  in  OUTPUT  FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more
                  information on state, queue size, and window size;

                  or the address or name of a  UNIX  domain  socket,  possibly
                  including a stream clone device name, a file system object’s
                  path name, local and foreign kernel addresses,  socket  pair
                  information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ‘‘STR’’, followed by the stream name;

                  or  a  stream  character device name, followed by ‘‘->’’ and
                  the stream name or a list of stream module names,  separated
                  by ‘‘->’’;

                  or ‘‘STR:’’ followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
                  module names, separated by ‘‘->’’;

                  or system directory name, ‘‘ -- ’’, and as  many  components
                  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel’s name cache
                  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                  more information.);

                  or ‘‘PIPE->’’, followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
                  address;

                  or ‘‘COMMON:’’, followed by  the  vnode  device  information
                  structure’s device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or  the  address family, followed by a slash (‘/’), followed
                  by fourteen comma-separated  bytes  of  a  non-Internet  raw
                  socket address;

                  or  the  HP-UX  x.25  local address, followed by the virtual
                  connection number (if any), followed by the  remote  address
                  (if any);

                  or  ‘‘(dead)’’ for disassociated DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, or
                  Tru64 UNIX files - typically terminal files that  have  been
                  flagged with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or ‘‘rd=<offset>’’ and ‘‘wr=<offset>’’ for the values of the
                  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                  or ‘‘clone n:/dev/event’’ for SCO OpenServer file clones  of
                  the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of
                  the file;

                  or ‘‘(socketpair: n)’’ for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or  10  UNIX
                  domain  socket,  created by the socketpair(3N) network func-
                  tion;

                  or ‘‘no PCB’’ for socket files that do not have  a  protocol
                  block  associated  with  them,  optionally  followed  by ‘‘,
                  CANTSENDMORE’’ if sending on the socket has  been  disabled,
                  or  ‘‘,  CANTRCVMORE’’  if  receiving on the socket has been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
                  in  the  form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses
                  by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the  connection
                  state;

                  or  ‘‘dgram’’  or ‘‘stream’’ for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
                  above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets,  followed  by  a  colon
                  (’:’)  and  the  local path name when available, followed by
                  ‘‘->’’ and the remote path name or kernel socket address  in
                  hexadecimal when available.

       For  dialects  that support a ‘‘namefs’’ file system, allowing one file
       to  be  attached  to  another   with   fattach(3C),   lsof   will   add
       ‘‘(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)’’    to    the    NAME   column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will  be  ‘‘<-’’  if <address2> has been fattach’ed to this vnode whose
       address is <address1>; and ‘‘->’’ if <address1>, the vnode  address  of
       this vnode, has been fattach’ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omit-
       ted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.


LOCKS

       Lsof can’t adequately report the wide  variety  of  UNIX  dialect  file
       locks  in a single character.  What it reports in a single character is
       a compromise between the information it finds in  the  kernel  and  the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only reports the status of the first lock it encounters.  If  it  is  a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       - i.e., ‘r’, ‘w’, or ‘x’  -  rather  than  the  upper  case  equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally  lsof  can  only  report  on locks held by local processes on
       local files.  When a local process sets a lock on  a  remotely  mounted
       (e.g.,  NFS)  file,  the  remote  server  host usually records the lock
       state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and  in
       all  versions  above  2.4,  the  Solaris  kernel records information on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.   Consult  the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.


OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS

       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is  suitable
       for  processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C
       program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a
       leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)  The data of the field
       follows  immediately  after  the  field  identification  character  and
       extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and  file  sets.   A
       process  set  begins  with a field whose identifier is ‘p’ (for process
       IDentifier (PID)).  It extends to the beginning of the next  PID  field
       or  the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever comes
       first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify  the  com-
       mand,  the  process group IDentification (PGID) number, and the user ID
       (UID) number or login name.

       A file set begins with a  field  whose  identifier  is  ‘f’  (for  file
       descriptor).   It  is followed by lines that describe the file’s access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream  module  names.  It extends to the beginning of the next file or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field  identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (‘p’) field.  All other  fields
       may  be declared optionally in the field identifier character list that
       follows the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies  an
       item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - spec-
       ification of the field character - e.g., ‘‘-FR’’  -  also  selects  the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult  to  identify  file sets.  To help you avoid this difficulty,
       lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all  fields  with
       NL  terminators  (the  -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields
       with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither  -F  nor  -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These  are  the  fields  that  lsof will produce.  The single character
       listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file’s device character code
            D    file’s major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            i    file’s inode number
            k    link count
            l    file’s lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file’s offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            g    process group ID
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file’s size (decimal)
            S    file’s stream identification
            t    file’s type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 ‘=’ is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn’t reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information  on  these  characters  and  their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the ‘?’ char-
       acter as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As  an  example,  ‘‘-F pcfn’’ will select the process ID (‘p’), command
       name (‘c’), file descriptor (‘f’) and file name (‘n’) fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ‘‘-F pcfn0’’ selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn’t produce all fields for every process  or  file  set,  only
       those  that  are  available.   Some fields are mutually exclusive: file
       device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode  num-
       ber  and  protocol name; file name and stream identification; file size
       and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually  exclusive  sets
       will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally  lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero)
       field identifier character may be specified to change the field  termi-
       nator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier to pro-
       cess with xargs (1), for example, or with programs whose quoting mecha-
       nisms  may  not  easily  cope with the range of characters in the field
       output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends  each  pro-
       cess and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included in the lsof distribution.  The  first  is  a  C  header  file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification char-
       acters, indexes for storing them in a table,  and  explanation  strings
       that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The  second  aid  is a set of sample scripts that process field output,
       written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They’re  located  in  the  scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The  third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test
       suite is written in C and uses field output  to  validate  the  correct
       operation  of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file
       of the  lsof  distribution.   The  library  uses  the  first  aid,  the
       lsof_fields.h header file.


BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS

       Lsof  can  be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2),
       readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in  the  kernel,
       for  example,  when  the  hosts  where  mounted NFS file systems reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers  and  child  processes,
       but  the  techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to
       break a block, it will report the break with  an  error  message.   The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default  timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?  option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two
       seconds,  but  you should avoid small values, since slow system respon-
       siveness can cause short timeouts to expire  unexpectedly  and  perhaps
       stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system
       information, it normally  continues,  although  with  less  information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof  can  also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child
       processes when using the kernel functions that might block by  specify-
       ing  the  -O  option.  While this will allow lsof to start up with less
       overhead, it exposes lsof completely  to  the  kernel  situations  that
       might block it.  Use this option cautiously.


AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS

       You  can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option  usually  requires  that  your  system  supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2)  kernel  functions.   See
       the  ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on alternate
       device numbers.

       Second, you can’t specify names for lsof to locate unless they’re  file
       system  names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and inode
       numbers of files listed with names in the  lsof  options,  and  the  -b
       option  prevents  lsof  from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof only
       has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil-
       ity  to  locate  files on file systems depends completely on the avail-
       ability and accuracy of the alternates.  If no  alternates  are  avail-
       able,  or  if  they’re incorrect, lsof won’t be able to locate files on
       the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that  lsof  obtains
       from  your  system’s mount table are symbolic links, lsof won’t be able
       to resolve the links.  This is because the -b  option  causes  lsof  to
       avoid  the  kernel  readlink(2)  function  it  uses to resolve symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it  needs  to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs it to
       avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying  the  -w  option,
       but  if  you do, you won’t see the alternate device numbers reported in
       the warning messages.


ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS

       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it  can’t  get
       information  about  a  mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2)
       kernel functions, or because you specified  the  -b  option,  lsof  can
       obtain  some of the information it needs - the device number and possi-
       bly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When  that  is
       possible,  lsof  will  report  the device number it obtained.  (You can
       suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if your mount table is  supported  with  an
       /etc/mtab  or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding
       a ‘‘dev=xxxx’’ field for mount points that do not  have  one  in  their
       options  strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e., some
       mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts  are
       read-only and can’t be modified.

       You  may  also  be  able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m
       options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the output
       of  lsofs  -h  or  -?   options  to see if the +m and +m m options are
       available.

       The ‘‘xxxx’’ portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the  file
       system’s device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output of the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)   Here’s  an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab for a
       file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There’s an advantage to having ‘‘dev=xxxx’’ entries in your mount table
       file,  especially  for  file  systems  that are mounted from remote NFS
       servers.  When a remote server crashes and you  want  to  identify  its
       users  by  running  lsof  on one of its clients, lsof probably won’t be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.   If  it  can  obtain  the file system’s device number from the
       mount table, it will be able to display the files open on  the  crashed
       NFS server.

       Some  dialects  that  do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file
       for the mount table may still provide an alternative device  number  in
       their  internal  mount  tables.   This  includes AIX, Apple Darwin, DEC
       OSF/1, Digital UNIX, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and  Tru64  UNIX.   Lsof
       knows  how  to  obtain the alternative device number for these dialects
       and uses it when its attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system  is
       blocked.

       If  you’re  not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for
       file systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see  if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:


              lsof -b

       Look  for  standard  error  file warning messages that begin ‘‘assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...’’.


KERNEL NAME CACHE

       Lsof is able to examine the kernel’s name cache  or  use  other  kernel
       facilities  (e.g.,  the  ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() function under Digital
       UNIX or Tru64 UNIX) on  some  dialects  for  most  file  system  types,
       excluding  AFS, and extract recently used path name components from it.
       (AFS file system path lookups don’t use the kernel’s name  cache;  some
       Solaris VxFS file system operations apparently don’t use it, either.)

       Lsof  reports  the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
       can’t report all components in a path, it reports in  the  NAME  column
       the  file system name, followed by a space, two ‘-’ characters, another
       space, and the name components it has located,  separated  by  the  ‘/’
       character.

       When  lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified -
       the extent to which it can report path name  components  for  the  same
       file  may  vary from cycle to cycle.  That’s because other running pro-
       cesses can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name  cache  and
       replace them with others.

       Lsofs  use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can
       lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.   This
       can  happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as a
       key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file  system
       is  reused.   If the UNIX dialect’s kernel doesn’t purge the name cache
       entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to  the
       wrong  entry  in  the  cache.   The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
       location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            BSDI BSD/OS
            DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX
            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            Caldera OpenUNIX
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris

       Lsof can’t report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can’t report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)


DEVICE CACHE FILE

       Examining  all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)
       functions can be time consuming.  What’s  more,  the  information  that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof  where
       it’s  not  needed.)  The local system administrator who builds lsof can
       control the way the device cache file path is  formed,  selecting  from
       these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state of device cache support.   The  help  output  lists  the  default
       read-mode  device  cache  file  path  that is in effect for the current
       invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output  lists  the  read-only  and
       write  device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file  has  been  acciden-
       tally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the compu-
       tation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check  (CRC)
       sum  on the file’s contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with the
       file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file
       and  create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legiti-
       mately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a  device  cache
       file  may  not  be  the  same  as the path to which it can legitimately
       write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device  cache
       file,  it may choose a different path for writing it from the path from
       which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a  new  device
       cache  file.  (It’s always available when specified without a path name
       argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the  device  cache  file  may
       need  to  be  recreated.   Since  lsof compares the mtime of the device
       cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev  (or  /devices)  direc-
       tory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that case
       lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device  cache
       file.

       Whenever  lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the
       real UID of the executing process, and its permission  modes  to  0600,
       this restricting its reading and writing to the file’s owner.


LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS

       Two  permissions  of  the  lsof executable affect its ability to access
       device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system admin-
       istrator when lsof is installed.

       The  first  and  rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect
       when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root, while  its  real
       (i.e.,  that  of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The lsof distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11
            Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into  effect
       when  the  effective group IDentification number (GID) of the lsof pro-
       cess is set to one that  can  access  kernel  memory  devices  -  e.g.,
       ‘‘kmem’’, ‘‘sys’’, or ‘‘system’’.

       An  lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the per-
       mission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it  does
       that,  lsof  can  allow more liberal device cache path formations.  The
       lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run  set-
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[123]
            Apple Darwin 6.x and 7.x for Power Macintosh systems
            BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
            DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.1
            FreeBSD 4.[1-9], 4.1[01], 5.[012] and 6.0 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.[012] and 6.0 for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64 based systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456] and 2.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0123456] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            Caldera OpenUNIX 8
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permis-
       sions given to the executable don’t apply to the device cache file.

            Linux


DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION

       The  -D  option  provides limited means for specifying the device cache
       file path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write  device
       cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to
       request that the cache file be built in a specific location  (b[path]);
       read  but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The b,
       r, and u functions are restricted  under  some  conditions.   They  are
       restricted  when  the  lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted  when  the  lsof  process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn’t surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section  for  a
       list of implementations that normally don’t surrender their setgid per-
       mission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to  read  device  information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof  to  read  the  device  cache
       file,  but  not  update  it.   When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device cache file path.  The r function is  always  available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not run-
       ning setuid-root and surrenders its  setgid  permission,  a  path  name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When  available,  the  u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache file.  If it can’t read the file, or if it  finds  the
       contents  of  the  file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the  device
       cache  file,  but  only  to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.


DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE

       Lsofs second choice for the device cache file is the contents  of  the
       LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from
       the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable:  lsof will not write a device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn’t surrender its setgid
       permission.   (See  the  LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE
       ACCESS section for information on implementations that don’t  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable or change its name when  building  lsof.   Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable’s name.


SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH

       The  local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by  a special system administration procedure when the system is booted
       or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined,  it  is
       lsofs third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof  will  never  write  to  the system-wide device cache file path by
       default.  It  must  be  explicitly  named  with  a  -D  function  in  a
       root-owned  procedure.   Once  the file has been written, the procedure
       must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read  and  owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).


PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)

       The  default  device  cache  file  path of the lsof distribution is one
       recorded in the home directory of the  real  UID  that  executes  lsof.
       Added  to  the  home  directory  is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsofs fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the
       default.  If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can’t find  the
       system-wide  device  cache  file.   This is the only time lsof uses two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the  exe-
       cuting  host,  as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined
       to be the characters preceding the first  ‘.’   in  the  gethostname(2)
       output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no ‘.’.

       The  device  cache  file  belongs  to  the  user ID and is readable and
       writable by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are  0600.   Each  dis-
       tinct  real  user  ID on a given host that executes lsof has a distinct
       device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes  device
       cache  files  in  an NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents  a
       device  cache  file that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to
       write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect  or  out-
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal  device cache file.  The conversions used in the format speci-
       fication are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.


MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH

       If this option is defined by the local system administrator  when  lsof
       is  built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the  path  at  the
       place  marked by the local system administrator with the ‘‘%p’’ conver-
       sion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the  dialect’s  machine.h
       header  file.   (It’s  placed  right  after  the  home directory in the
       default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ‘‘LSOF’’, the home direc-
       tory  is ‘‘/Homes/abe’’, the host name is ‘‘lsof.itap.purdue.edu’’, and
       the HASPERSDC format is the default (‘‘%h/%p.lsof_%L’’),  the  modified
       personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment variable is ignored when the lsof pro-
       cess is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache  file  path  if
       the  lsof  process  doesn’t surrender setgid permission.  (See the LSOF
       PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list  of
       implementations that normally don’t surrender their setgid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal  device
       cache  file  paths  by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to
       name it, and lsof doesn’t surrender its  setgid  permission,  you  will
       have  to  allow  lsof to create device cache files at the standard per-
       sonal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option  when  lsof  is
       built;  change the name of the environment variable from LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the  personal
       path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component
       entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option  for  the  environment
       variable’s name and the HASPERSDC format specification.


DIAGNOSTICS

       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V
       option is specified, lsof will indicate the search items it  failed  to
       list.

       It  returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.


       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdi-
       rectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues
       a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may  also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the out-
       put from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible  device  warning messages usually disappear after lsof has
       created a working device cache file.


EXAMPLES

       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more  fully,  see  the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To  list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is
       1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open  IPv6  net-
       work files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To  list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of  mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ‘‘abe’’, or user ID 1234, or pro-
       cess 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP ‘lsof -t /u/abe/bar‘

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file,  with
       the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To  find  processes  with  open  files  on  the  NFS  file system named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To  obtain  PID  and  command  name field output for each process, file
       descriptor, file device number, and file inode number for each file  of
       each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To  list  the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the
       lsof command for login ID ‘‘abe’’ every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes  running  a  command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an ’o’ or ’O’ in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric  dot-form
       address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To  find  an  IP  version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6)  by  an  associated  numeric colon-form address that has a run of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]


BUGS

       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its  search  for  open  files,  rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When  a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character (fol-
       lowing the file descriptor) is derived from a test of  the  first  lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can’t search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless  it  is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise it is
       limited to searching for files to which its user or its  set-GID  group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina-
       tion address in the raw socket’s protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can’t always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor device numbers  that  the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones  that
       it  reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems  is  available  only  for  BSD,  DEC
       OSF/1,  Digital  UNIX,  and  Tru64  UNIX  dialects, Linux, and dialects
       derived from  SYSV  R4  -  e.g.,  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,  OpenBSD,  Solaris,
       UnixWare.

       Some  /proc  file  items - device number, inode number, and file size -
       are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc  file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No  text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All
       entries for files other than the current working  directory,  the  root
       directory,  and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can’t search for DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX,  and  Tru64  UNIX  named
       pipes  by name, because their kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns
       an improper device number for a named pipe.

       Lsof can’t report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01,  10.20,  and  11.00
       locks  because  of  insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the
       kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section  gives  its  location.)
       for details.

       The  AIX  SMT file type is a fabrication.  It’s made up for file struc-
       tures whose type (15) isn’t defined in the AIX  /usr/include/sys/file.h
       header  file.   One  way  to  create  such  file structures is to run X
       clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ‘‘:0.0’’.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based  Linux  lsof,
       because it doesn’t read kernel structures from kernel memory.


ENVIRONMENT

       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines  a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the
                         names of other variables that can be used in place of
                         LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines  the  path  to  a device cache file.  See the
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLE  sec-
                         tion for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines  the  middle component of a modified personal
                         device cache file path.  See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.


FAQ

       Frequently-asked  questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ


FILES

       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsofs  device  cache  file (The suffix, hostname, is
                         the first component of the host’s  name  returned  by
                         gethostname(2).)


AUTHORS

       Lsof  was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue Univer-
       sity.  Many others have contributed to lsof.   They’re  listed  in  the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.


DISTRIBUTION

       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You’ll find the lsof  distribution  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you’ll be given a list
       of  some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains
       a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with  caution  -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof  executables  are  available on lsof.itap.pur-
       due.edu, but their use is discouraged - it’s better that you build your
       own  from  the  sources.   If you feel you must use a pre-compiled exe-
       cutable, please read the cautions that appear in the  README  files  of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of
       the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof  distribution  can  be  found  in  its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.


SEE ALSO

       Not  all  the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),
       gethostname(2),  isprint(3),  kill(1),  lstat(2), modload(8), mount(8),
       netstat(1),  ofiles(8L),  perl(1),  ps(1),  readlink(2),  setlocale(3),
       stat(2), uname(1).



                                 Revision-4.74                         LSOF(8)

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