mkisofs



MKISOFS(8)                                                          MKISOFS(8)




NAME

       mkisofs  - create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional
       Rock Ridge attributes.


SYNOPSIS

       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]


DESCRIPTION

       mkisofs  is  effectively  a  pre-mastering  program  to   generate   an
       ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

       mkisofs  is  capable  of  generating  the  System  Use Sharing Protocol
       records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.   This
       is  used  to  further describe the files in the iso9660 filesystem to a
       unix host, and provides information such as longer filenames,  uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links, block and character devices.

       If  Joliet  or  HFS  hybrid command line options are specified, mkisofs
       will create additional filesystem meta data for  Joliet  or  HFS.   The
       file  content in this case refers to the same data blocks on the media.
       It will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless  the  Joliet  or  HFS
       hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when  accessed  from  a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO9660 files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands for Hierar-
       chical File System and is the native file system used on Macintosh com-
       puters.

       As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660
       for each file. These extensions provide each file  with  CREATOR,  TYPE
       and  certain  Finder  Flags when accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS
       MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory  tree,  and  generates  a
       binary image which will correspond to an ISO9660 or HFS filesystem when
       written to a block device.

       Each file written to the iso9660 filesystem must have a filename in the
       8.3  format  (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even
       if Rock Ridge is in use.  This filename is used on systems that are not
       able  to  make  use  of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and
       each filename in each directory must be different from the other  file-
       names  in  the same directory.  mkisofs generally tries to form correct
       names by forcing the unix filename to  upper  case  and  truncating  as
       required, but often times this yields unsatisfactory results when there
       are cases where the  truncated  names  are  not  all  unique.   mkisofs
       assigns  weightings  to each filename, and if two names that are other-
       wise the same are found the name with the lower priority is renamed  to
       have  a  3 digit number as an extension (where the number is guaranteed
       to be unique).  An example of this  would  be  the  files  foo.bar  and
       foo.bar.~1~ - the file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as FOO000.BAR;1 and
       the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS options, mkisofs will attempt  to  recognise
       files  stored  in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the
       data and resource forks as well as any relevant finder information. See
       the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE  FORMATS section below for more about formats
       mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is  not  designed  to  communicate  with  the  writer
       directly.   Most  writers have proprietary command sets which vary from
       one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized tool  to  actu-
       ally burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest    version    of    cdrecord    is     available     from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also  you  should  know  that most cd writers are very particular about
       timing.  Once you start to burn a disc, you  cannot  let  their  buffer
       empty  before  you  are  done,  or you will end up with a corrupt disc.
       Thus it is critical that you be able to maintain an uninterrupted  data
       stream  to  the writer for the entire time that the disc is being writ-
       ten.

       pathspec is the path of the  directory  tree  to  be  copied  into  the
       iso9660  filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge the files found in all of the specified path components  to  form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the paths at points other than the root directory, and it  is  possible
       to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than what they have in the  source  filesystem.   This  is  easiest  to
       illustrate  with a couple of examples.   Let’s start by assuming that a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in  the  cdrom
       image.


            foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will  include  the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

            foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.   The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist on the
       cdrom  image  -  the  directories  do  not need to appear in one of the
       paths.  By default, any directories that are created on  the  fly  like
       this  will  have  permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person
       running mkisofs.  If you wish other permissions or owners of the inter-
       mediate   directories,   see  -uid,  -gid,  -dir-mode,  -file-mode  and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs will also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled with  Cygnus’
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with Win32.



OPTIONS

       -abstract FILE
              Specifies the abstract file name.  There is space  on  the  disc
              for  37  characters  of information.  This parameter can also be
              set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.  If specified  in
              both places, the command line version is used.

       -A application_id
              Specifies  a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
              header.  This should describe the application that  will  be  on
              the  disc.   There  is  space  on the disc for 128 characters of
              information.  This  parameter  can  also  be  set  in  the  file
              .mkisofsrc  with APPI=id.  If specified in both places, the com-
              mand line version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin  with  a  period.   Usually,  a
              leading  dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain
              MS-DOS compatibility.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
              This  options  allows lower case characters to appear in iso9660
              filenames.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
              some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
              This options allows more than one dot to appear in iso9660 file-
              names.  A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may  be
              allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
              Specifies the bibliographic file name.  There is  space  on  the
              disc  for 37 characters of information.  This parameter can also
              be set in the file .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename.  If specified
              in both places, the command line version is used.

       -cache-inodes
              Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
              mkisofs finds a hard link (a file with multiple names), then the
              file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
              on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is  default  on  UNIX  like
              operating  systems.   Be  careful  when  using  this option on a
              filesystem without unique inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
              files containing the wrong content on CD.

       -no-cache-inodes
              Do  not  cache  inode and device numbers.  This option is needed
              whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers. It  is
              the  default  on Cygwin.  As the Microsoft operating system that
              runs below Cygwin is not  POSIX  compliant,  it  does  not  have
              unique  inode numbers.  Cygwin creates fake inode numbers from a
              hash algorithm that is not 100% correct.  If mkisofs would cache
              inodes on Cygwin, it would believe that some files are identical
              although they are not. The result in this case  are  files  that
              contain  the  wrong content if a significant amount of different
              files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is  to  be  archived.
              This  does not happen when the -no-cache-inodes is used, but the
              disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot detect hardlinks anymore and
              the resulting CD image may be larger than expected.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the boot image to be used
              when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
              relative  to  the source path specified to mkisofs.  This option
              is required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The boot  image
              must  be  exactly  the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB
              floppy, and mkisofs will use this size when creating the  output
              iso9660 filesystem. It is assumed that the first 512 byte sector
              should be read from the boot image (it is essentially  emulating
              a  normal  floppy  drive).   This will work, for example, if the
              boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

              If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need  to  add
              one  of  the  options: -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.  If the
              system should not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

              If the -sort option has not been specified, the boot images  are
              sorted  with  low  priority (+2) to the beginning of the medium.
              If you don’t like this, you need to specify a sort weight  of  0
              for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
              Start  with  a  new  set  of  "El Torito" boot parameters.  This
              allows to have more than one El Torito boot on a CD.  A  maximum
              of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a single CD.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies  a comma separated list of boot images that are needed
              to make a bootable CD for sparc systems.  Partition  0  is  used
              for the ISO-9660 image, the first image file is mapped to parti-
              tion 1.  There may be empty fields in the comma separated  list.
              The maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it is impossi-
              ble to specify more than 7 partition  images.   This  option  is
              required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If the -B
              or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the  first  sector  of
              the  resulting  image  will  contain a Sun disk label. This disk
              label specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image and  slice  1  ...
              slice  7  for the boot images that have been specified with this
              option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of  the  additional
              boot  images  must  contain  a  primary  boot that works for the
              appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each of  the  images
              usually  contains  an ufs filesystem that is used primary kernel
              boot stage.

              The implemented boot method is the boot method found with  SunOS
              4.x  and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not depend on SunOS inter-
              nals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this rea-
              son,  it should be usable for any OS that boots off a sparc sys-
              tem.

              For more information also see the NOTES section below.

              If the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all follow-
              ing  boot  partitions  are  mapped to the previous partition. If
              mkisofs is called with -G image -B ...  all boot partitions  are
              mapped  to  the  partition  that contains the iso9660 filesystem
              image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
              sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
              Specifies  the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
              used when making a generic bootable CD.  The  generic_boot_image
              will  be  placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16
              sectors are the sectors that are located before the iso9660 pri-
              mary  volume  descriptor.   If this option is used together with
              the -sparc-boot option, the Sun  disk  label  will  overlay  the
              first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
              Specifies  that  the  boot  image  used  to  create  "El Torito"
              bootable CDs is a hard disk image.  The  hard  disk  image  must
              begin  with  a  master boot record that contains a single parti-
              tion.

       -no-emul-boot
              Specifies that  the  boot  image  used  to  create  "El  Torito"
              bootable CDs is a ’no emulation’ image. The system will load and
              execute this image without performing any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
              Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should  be  marked  as
              not  bootable. The system will provide an emulated drive for the
              image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
              Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emu-
              lation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
              Specifies  the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in
              no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
              Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
              Specifies  that  a  56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM
              layout will be patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.  If this
              option  is  given,  the  boot  file  is  modified  in the source
              filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file  cannot  be
              easily  regenerated!   See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section
              for a description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
              This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create  a  CDextra
              or the image of a second session or a higher level session for a
              multi session disk.  The option -C takes a pair of  two  numbers
              separated  by  a comma. The first number is the sector number of
              the first sector in the last session of the disk that should  be
              appended to.  The second number is the starting sector number of
              the new session.  The expected pair of numbers may be  retrieved
              by  calling  cdrecord  -msinfo  ...  If the -C option is used in
              conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
              image that is intended to be a continuation of the previous ses-
              sion.  If the -C option is used without the -M  option,  mkisofs
              will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a
              second session on a CDextra. This is a  multi  session  CD  that
              holds  audio  data in the first session and a ISO9660 filesystem
              in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to  be  used
              when  making  an  "El  Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.   This  option
              is  required  to make a bootable CD.  This file will be inserted
              into the output tree and not created in the  source  filesystem,
              so  be  sure  the  specified  filename does not conflict with an
              existing file, as it will  be  excluded.  Usually  a  name  like
              "boot.catalog" is chosen.

              If  the  -sort  option  has not been specified, the boot catalog
              sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
              If  you  don’t like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0
              for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
              Check all filenames imported from  old  session  for  compliance
              with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules.  It his option is
              not present, only names with a length > 31 are checked as  these
              files are a hard violation of the iso9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
              Check  all  old  sessions  for  compliance  with  actual mkisofs
              iso9660 file naming rules.  This is a high level option that  is
              a combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
              the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
              Specifies the Copyright file name.  There is space on  the  disc
              for  37  characters  of information.  This parameter can also be
              set in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.  If specified  in
              both places, the command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them
              in the way we see them.
              If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660
              standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use with cau-
              tion.

       -dir-mode mode
              Overrides  the  mode  of directories used to create the image to
              mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -dvd-video
              Generate  DVD-Video  compliant  UDF file system. This is done by
              sorting the order of the content of the appropriate files and by
              adding padding between the files if needed.  Note that the sort-
              ing only works if the DVD-Video  filenames  include  upper  case
              characters only.

       -f     Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When this
              option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using  Rock
              Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
              Overrides  the mode of regular files used to create the image to
              mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -gid gid
              Overrides  the  gid  read  from the source files to the value of
              gid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output
              more verbose but may have other effects in future.

       -graft-points
              Allow to use graft points for filenames. If this option is used,
              all  filenames  are  checked  for  graft points. The filename is
              divided at the first unescaped equal sign.  All  occurrences  of
              ’\\’   and   ’=’   characters  must  be  escaped  with  ’\\’  if
              -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
              Hide glob from being seen on the ISO9660 or  Rock  Ridge  direc-
              tory.   glob  is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match
              any part of the filename or path.  Multiple globs may be hidden.
              If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory
              will be hidden.  In order to match a directory name,  make  sure
              the pathname does not include a trailing ’/’ character.  All the
              hidden files will still be written to the output CD image  file.
              Should be used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for
              more details.

       -hide-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hidden glob
              Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for glob.
              This  attribute will prevent glob from being listed on DOS based
              systems if the /A flag is not used for the listing.  glob  is  a
              shell  wild-card-style  pattern  that must match any part of the
              filename or path.  In order to match a directory name, make sure
              the  pathname does not include a trailing ’/’ character.  Multi-
              ple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden attribute as
              above.

       -hide-joliet glob
              Hide  glob  from  being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a
              shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any  part  of  the
              filename  or  path.   Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.  If glob
              matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be
              hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the path-
              name does not include a trailing ’/’ character.  All the  hidden
              files will still be written to the output CD image file.  Should
              be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
              Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree.  These files usu-
              ally don’t make sense in the Joliet World as they list the  real
              name  and  the ISO9660 name which may both be different from the
              Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
              Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved  in  the  Rock  Ridge
              tree.  It seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
              directory from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option only makes  the
              visible tree better to understand for people who don’t know what
              this directory is for.  If you need to have no  RR_MOVED  direc-
              tory  at  all,  you  should use the -D option. Note that in case
              that the -D option has been specified, the resulting  filesystem
              is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be readable on MS-
              DOS.  See  also  NOTES  section  for  more  information  on  the
              RR_MOVED directory.

       -input-charset charset
              Input  charset  that  defines  the characters used in local file
              names.  To get a list  of  valid  charset  names,  call  mkisofs
              -input-charset  help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default
              as charset name. The default initial values  are  cp437  on  DOS
              based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  See CHARACTER
              SETS section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
              Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
              Rock  Ridge file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHAR-
              ACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -iso-level level
              Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3 and 4.

              With  level  1,  files may only consist of one section and file-
              names are restricted to 8.3 characters.

              With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

              With level 3, no  restrictions  (other  than  ISO-9660:1988)  do
              apply.

              With  all iso9660 levels from 1..3, all filenames are restricted
              to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore (_). The maxi-
              mum  filename  length is restricted to 31 characters, the direc-
              tory nesting level is restricted  to  8  and  the  maximum  path
              length is limited to 255 characters.

              Level  4  officially  does  not  exists  but  mkisofs maps it to
              ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

              With level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version  number
              and  file  structure  version number set to 2 is emitted.  There
              may be more than 8 levels of directory nesting, there is no need
              for  a  file  to  contain  a dot and the dot has no more special
              meaning, file names do not have  version  numbers,  the  maximum
              length  for files and directory is raised to 207.  If Rock Ridge
              is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length is reduced to 197.

              When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced volume
              descriptor  which  looks  similar to a primary volume descriptor
              but is slightly different. Be careful not to use broken software
              to  make  ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy
              and patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular iso9660
              file  names.   This is primarily useful when the discs are to be
              used on Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The Joliet filenames
              are specified in Unicode and each path component can be up to 64
              Unicode characters long.  Note that Joliet is no standard - CD’s
              that  use  only  Joliet  extensions  but  no standard Rock Ridge
              extensions may usually only be used on Microsoft Win32  systems.
              Furthermore,  the  fact  that  the  filenames  are limited to 64
              characters and the fact that Joliet uses the UTF-16  coding  for
              Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
              Allow  Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This
              breaks the Joliet specification - but appears to work. Use  with
              caution.  The  number 103 is derived from: the maximum Directory
              Record Length (254), minus the length of Directory Record  (33),
              minus  CD-ROM  XA System Use Extension Information (14), divided
              by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
              Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARAC-
              TER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow  full  31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 file-
              name will be in an 8.3 format which is compatible  with  MS-DOS,
              even  though  the  ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31
              characters.  If you use this option, the disc may  be  difficult
              to use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy on some other
              systems (such as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated  option  reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -allow-lead-
              ing-dots  instead.   This option will get POSIX.1-2001 semantics
              with mkisofs-2.02.

       -log-file log_file
              Redirect  all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
              log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
              Exclude glob from being written to CDROM.  glob is a shell wild-
              card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
              path  as  with  option -x).  Technically glob is matched against
              the d->d_name part of the directory entry.  Multiple  globs  may
              be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -m ’*.o’ -m core -m foobar

              would  exclude  all files ending in ".o", called "core" or "foo-
              bar" to be copied to CDROM. Note that if  you  had  a  directory
              called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descendants) would
              be excluded.

              NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
              they  are wrong.  Both now work identical and use filename glob-
              bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
              the whole path matches.

       -exclude-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be exclude as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
              Allow  37 chars in iso9660 filenames.  This option forces the -N
              option as the extra name space is taken from the space  reserved
              for ISO-9660 version numbers.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Although a conforming application needs  to  pro-
              vide  a  buffer  space  of at least 37 characters, disks created
              with this option may cause a  buffer  overflow  in  the  reading
              operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
              or

       -M device
              or

       -dev device
              Specifies  path  to  existing  iso9660  image  to be merged. The
              alternate form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the  same
              syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord.  The output of mkisofs
              will be a new session which should get written to the end of the
              image  specified  in  -M.  Typically this requires multi-session
              capability for  the  recorder  and  cdrom  drive  that  you  are
              attempting to write this image to.  This option may only be used
              in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really  uses  the
              version numbers anyway.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
              Mode  to  use when creating new directories in the iso fs image.
              The default mode is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
              Do not include backup files files on the iso9660 filesystem.  If
              the  -no-bak option is specified, files that contain the charac-
              ters ’~’ or ’#’ or end in ’.bak’ will not be included (these are
              typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -force-rr
              Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
              previous sessions.  This helps to show rotten iso9660  extension
              records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the  Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
              This may help to avoid getting into trouble when  mkisofs  finds
              illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
              Don’t split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
              (CE) instead. This may waste some space,  but  the  SunOS  4.1.4
              cdrom driver has a bug in reading split SL components (link_size
              = component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

              Note that this option has been introduced by Eric  Youngdale  in
              1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
              it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
              create  defective  CE  signatures if a symlink contained ‘/../’.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
              Don’t split the SL fields, but begin  a  new  Continuation  Area
              (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
              Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split SL fields
              (a ‘/’ can be dropped).

              Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
              1997.  It is questionable whether it makes sense at  all.   When
              it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that did
              create defective CE signatures if a  symlink  contained  ‘/../’.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
              is  the  name  of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image
              should be written.  This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it
              can  correspond  directly to the device name of the optical disc
              writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that the output
              can  also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in
              which case the disk partition can be  mounted  and  examined  to
              ensure that the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).  If the
              option -B is used, then there is a padding at  the  end  of  the
              iso9660  partition  and  before the beginning of the boot parti-
              tions.  The size of this padding is chosen  to  make  the  first
              boot  partition  start  on a sector number that is a multiple of
              16.

              The padding is needed as many  operating  systems  (e.g.  Linux)
              implement  read  ahead  bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs
              result in read errors on one or more files that are  located  at
              the  end  of  a  track.  They are usually present when the CD is
              written in Track at Once mode or when the  disk  is  written  as
              mixed mode CD where an audio track follows the data track.

              To  avoid  problems  with  I/O  error  on  the  last file on the
              filesystem, the -pad option has been made the default.

       -no-pad
              Do not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not  make  the
              the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
              A  file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
              to be added to the ISO9660 filesystem. This  list  of  pathspecs
              are  processed after any that appear on the command line. If the
              argument is -, then the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated  option  reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,   use   -publisher
              instead.   This  option  will  get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics with
              mkisofs-2.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
              Specifies a text string that will be  written  into  the  volume
              header.   This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usu-
              ally with a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
              the  disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter can
              also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified  in
              both places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
              Specifies  a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
              header.  This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually
              with  a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on the
              disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter can also
              be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -print-size
              Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector  size
              (2048  bytes)  and  exit. This option is needed for Disk At Once
              mode and  with  some  CD-R  drives  when  piping  directly  into
              cdrecord.   In  this  case  it is needed to know the size of the
              filesystem before the actual CD-creation is  done.   The  option
              -print-size  allows to get this size from a "dry-run" before the
              CD is actually written.  Old versions of mkisofs did write  this
              information  (among other information) to stderr.  As this turns
              out to be hard to parse, the number without any  other  informa-
              tion  is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a sim-
              ple shell script, redirect stderr and catch the number from std-
              out.  This may be done with:

              cdblocks= mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... 

              mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This  makes  mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress output will
              be provided.

       -R     Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock  Ridge  protocol  to
              further describe the files on the iso9660 filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
              to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
              they  are  usually  only  useful on the author’s system, and not
              useful to the client.  All the file read bits are set  true,  so
              that  files and directories are globally readable on the client.
              If any execute bit is set for a file, set  all  of  the  execute
              bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client.
              If any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the  search
              bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
              All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will  be  mounted
              read-only in any case.  If any of the special mode bits are set,
              clear them, because file locks are not  useful  on  a  read-only
              file  system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or gid
              0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is  set  on  all  files.
              This  is  a  result of the lack of file permissions on Win32 and
              the  Cygwin  POSIX  emulation  layer.   See  also   -uid   -gid,
              -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
              The   option  -relaxed-filenames  allows  ISO9660  filenames  to
              include digits, upper case characters and all other 7 bit  ASCII
              characters (resp. anything except lowercase characters).
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
              Moves all files and directories into dir in the image.  This  is
              essentially  the  same  as using -graft-points and adding dir in
              front of every pathspec, but is easier to use.

              dir may actually be several levels deep. It is created with  the
              same permissions as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
              This  option  is necessary when writing a multisession image and
              the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
              Using  a directory name not found in the previous session causes
              mkisofs to abort with an error.

              Without this option, mkisofs would not be able to  find  unmodi-
              fied  files  and  would  be  forced to write their data into the
              image once more.

              -root and -old-root are meant to be used together to  do  incre-
              mental  backups.   The  initial  session would e.g. use: mkisofs
              -root backup_1 dirs.  The next incremental backup  with  mkisofs
              -root  backup_2  -old-root  backup_1  dirs.   would take another
              snapshot of these directories. The first snapshot would be found
              in  backup_1,  the  second one in backup_2, but only modified or
              new files need to be written into the second session.

              Without these options, new files would be  added  and  old  ones
              would  be  preserved.  But  old ones would be overwritten if the
              file was modified. Recovering the files  by  copying  the  whole
              directory  back  from  CD  would  also  restore  files that were
              deleted intentionally. Accessing several  older  versions  of  a
              file  requires  support  by the operating system to choose which
              sessions are to be mounted.

       -sort sort file
              Sort file locations on the media. Sorting  is  controlled  by  a
              file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting offset weight-
              ing.  If the weighting is  higher,  the  file  will  be  located
              closer to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is lower,
              the file will be located closer to the end of the  media.  There
              must  be  only  one space or tabs character between the filename
              and the weight and the weight must be the last characters  on  a
              line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to,
              but not including the last space or tab  character  on  a  line.
              This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of
              a filename.  This option does not sort the  order  of  the  file
              names  that  appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts the order
              in which the file data is written to the CD image - which may be
              useful  in  order  to  optimize  the  data  layout  on a CD. See
              README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
              Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is  cre-
              ated with the -sparc-boot option.

       -split-output
              Split the output image into several files of approximately 1 GB.
              This helps to create  DVD  sized  iso9660  images  on  operating
              systems  without  large file support.  Cdrecord will concatenate
              more than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.   To
              make  -split-output  work, the -o filename option must be speci-
              fied.  The  resulting  outout  images  will  be   named:   file-
              name_00,filename_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
              Select  streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.
              This allows you to pipe the  output  of  the  tar  program  into
              mkisofs  and  to create a iso9660 filesystem without the need of
              an intermediate tar archive file.  If this option has been spec-
              ified, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file with the name
              STREAM.IMG.  The maximum size of the file (with padding) is  200
              sectors  less than the specified media size. If -no-pad has been
              specified, the file size is 50 sectors less than  the  specified
              media  size.   If  the  file is smaller, then mkisofs will write
              padding. This may take a while.

              The option -stream-media-size creates simple iso9660 filesystems
              only  and  may  not  used  together with multi-session or hybrid
              filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
              Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
              Specifies a comma separated list of filesystem images  that  are
              needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

              Note  that  partition  1 is used for the ISO-9660 image and that
              partition 2 is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may  not  be
              used by external partition data.  The first image file is mapped
              to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in  the  comma  sepa-
              rated  list,  and  list  entries  for  partition 1 and 2 must be
              empty.   The  maximum  number  of  supported  partitions  is   8
              (although the Solaris x86 partition table could support up to 16
              partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than  6  parti-
              tion  images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD for
              Solaris x86 systems.

              If the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first  sector
              of  the  resulting  image  will  contain a PC fdisk label with a
              Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at offset 512  and
              spans  the  whole  CD.   In  addition, for the Solaris type 0x82
              fdisk partition, there is a SVr4 disk label at  offset  1024  in
              the  first  sector of the CD.  This disk label specifies slice 0
              for the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that  is  used
              to boot the PC and slice 1 for the iso9660 image.  Slice 2 spans
              the whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7  may  be  used  for  additional
              filesystem images that have been specified with this option.

              A  Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that
              uses the  El-Torito  no-emulation  boot  mode  and  a  secondary
              generic boot that is in CD sectors 1..15.  For this reason, both
              -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
              Set the SVr4 disk label name for the SVr4  disk  label  that  is
              created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
              Specifies  the  system  ID.   There  is space on the disc for 32
              characters of information.  This parameter can also  be  set  in
              the  file  .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.  If specified in both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM,  which
              can  be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help establish
              the correct file names.  There is also  information  present  in
              the  file  that  indicates the major and minor numbers for block
              and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
              file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
              Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
              -T option.  If you are creating a multi-session image  you  must
              use the same name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
              Set  Unicode  conformance  level  in the Joliet SVD. The default
              level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include UDF support in the generated filesystem image.  UDF sup-
              port is currently in alpha status and for this reason, it is not
              possible to create UDF only images.   UDF  data  structures  are
              currently  coupled  to  the Joliet structures, so there are many
              pitfalls with the current implementation. There  is  no  UID/GID
              support,  there is no POSIX permission support, there is no sup-
              port for symlinks.  Note that UDF wastes the space  from  sector
              ~20  to  sector  256 at the beginning of the disk in addition to
              the spcae needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
              Overrides the uid read from the source files  to  the  value  of
              uid.   Specifying  this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
              extensions.

       -use-fileversion
              The option -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use  file  version
              numbers  from  the  filesystem.  If the option is not specified,
              mkisofs creates a version number of 1 for all files.  File  ver-
              sions  are  strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is the
              default on VMS.

       -U     Allows  "Untranslated"  filenames,  completely   violating   the
              iso9660  standards  described  above.  Forces on the -d, -l, -N,
              -allow-leading-dots,    -relaxed-filenames,    -allow-lowercase,
              -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It allows more than
              one ’.’ character in the filename, as well as mixed  case  file-
              names.   This is useful on HP-UX system, where the built-in CDFS
              filesystem does not recognize ANY extensions. Use  with  extreme
              caution.

       -no-iso-translate
              Do  not  translate  the characters ’#’ and ’~’ which are invalid
              for iso9660 filenames.   These  characters  are  though  invalid
              often used by Microsoft systems.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
              Specifies the volume ID (volume name or  label)  to  be  written
              into  the master block.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
              acters of information.  This parameter can also be  set  in  the
              file  .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If specified in both places, the
              command line version is used.  Note that if you assign a  volume
              ID,  this  is the name that will be used as the mount point used
              by the Solaris volume management system and  the  name  that  is
              assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
              Specifies the volset ID.  There is space on  the  disc  for  128
              characters  of  information.   This parameter can also be set in
              the file .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.  If specified  in  both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
              Sets  the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the num-
              ber of CD’s that are in a CD volume set.  A volume set is a col-
              lection  of  one  or  more  volumes,  on which a set of files is
              recorded.

              Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered
              CD’s  that  are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set
              of CD’s.  Volume Sets are rather used to record a big  directory
              tree  that  would  not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of a
              Volume Set contains a description of  all  the  directories  and
              files  that  are recorded on the volumes where the sequence num-
              bers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
              the current volume.

              Mkisofs currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger
              than 1.

              The option -volset-size must be specified  before  -volset-seqno
              on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
              Sets  the  volume  set  sequence  number  to  #.  The volume set
              sequence number is the index number of the current CD  in  a  CD
              set.    The   option   -volset-size  must  be  specified  before
              -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice on  the  command  line,  extra
              debug information will be printed.

       -x path
              Exclude path from being written to CDROM.  path must be the com-
              plete pathname that  results  from  concatenating  the  pathname
              given  as  command  line  argument and the path relative to this
              directory.  Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

              NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
              they  are wrong.  Both now work identical and use filename glob-
              bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
              the whole path matches.

       -z     Generate  special  RRIP  records  for  transparently  compressed
              files.  This is only of use and interest for hosts that  support
              transparent  decompression,  such as Linux 2.4.14 or later.  You
              must specify the -R or -r options to enable RockRidge, and  gen-
              erate compressed files using the mkzftree utility before running
              mkisofs.  Note that transparent  compression  is  a  nonstandard
              Rock  Ridge  extension.   The resulting disks are only transpar-
              ently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating systems you
              will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.



HFS OPTIONS

       -hfs   Create  an  ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
              conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or the various double dash
              options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD  with Apple’s extensions. Similar to the
              -hfs option, except that the Apple  Extensions  to  ISO9660  are
              added  instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.  Former mkisofs
              versions did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if  -apple
              was  specified.  This  versions of mkisofs does not do this any-
              more. If you like to have Rock Ridge  attributes,  you  need  to
              specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
              Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
              a file based on the filename’s extension. A filename  is  mapped
              only  if  it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
              the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
              The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file’s  magic
              number  (usually  the first few bytes of a file). The magic_file
              is only used if a file is not one of the known  Apple/Unix  file
              formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
              -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
              details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
              Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
              ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
              Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be  exactly  4  charac-
              ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
              formats.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section  below  for
              more  about  these  formats.  However, the only way to check for
              MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them. There-
              fore  this  option may increase processing time. It is better to
              use  one  or  more  double  dash  options  given  below  if  the
              Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
              Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will
              be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the
              System  Folder).   By  default, empty Desktop files are added to
              the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
              Use the HFS filename as the  starting  point  for  the  ISO9660,
              Joliet  and  Rock  Ridge  file names. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
              NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
              Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Mac-
              intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate  an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table
              is generated, but some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need an HFS
              partition  table  on  the CDROM to be able to recognize a hybrid
              CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
              Make the HFS CD use  the  QuickTime  2.0  Autostart  feature  to
              launch  an  application  or document. The given filename must be
              the name of a document or application located at the  top  level
              of  the  CD.  The  filename  must  be  less  than 12 characters.
              (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
              Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units  of  PC
              Exchange  files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MAC-
              INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
              Hide glob from the HFS volume. The file or directory will  still
              exist  in  the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a shell
              wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename
              Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs ’*.o’ -hide-hfs foobar

              would  exclude  all files ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from
              the HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory called "foobar"
              it  too  (and  of course all its descendants) would be excluded.
              The glob can also be a path name relative to the source directo-
              ries given on the command line. Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

              would  exclude just the file or directory called "html" from the
              "src" directory. Any other file or directory  called  "html"  in
              the  tree  will  not be excluded.  Should be used with the -hide
              and/or -hide-joliet options.  In  order  to  match  a  directory
              name,  make  sure  the  pathname does not include a trailing ’/’
              character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
              Volume name for the HFS partition. This  is  the  name  that  is
              assigned  to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid used
              with the -V option

       -icon-position
              Use the icon  position  information,  if  it  exists,  from  the
              Apple/Unix  file.  The icons will appear in the same position as
              they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and  size  on
              screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
              Icons, etc.) are also preserved.  This option may become set  by
              default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
              Set  the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View
              etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume.  See  README.rootinfo
              for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
              PReP  boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
              (Alpha)

       -input-hfs-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS file names
              when  used  with  the  -mac-name option.  The default charset is
              cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER  SETS  and
              HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
              Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
              the HFS file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER
              SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
              By  default,  mkisofs  will create an HFS volume that is locked.
              This option leaves the volume unlocked so  that  other  applica-
              tions  (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS PROB-
              LEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for  warnings  about  using  this
              option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
              "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System
              Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the
              directory  must  be the whole path name as mkisofs sees it. e.g.
              if the given pathspec is ./cddata and  the  required  folder  is
              called System Folder, then the whole path name is "./cddata/Sys-
              tem Folder"  (remember  to  use  quotes  if  the  name  contains
              spaces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
              Override  certain parameters used to create the HFS file system.
              Unlikely to be  used  in  normal  circumstances.  See  the  lib-
              hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for  AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix
              file formats only. Searching for the other  possible  Apple/Unix
              file  formats  is disabled, unless other double dash options are
              given.

       --netatalk
              Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
              Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
              Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
              Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
              Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
              Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
              Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
              Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft’s Services  for  Macintosh  files  (NT  only)
              (Alpha)

       --osx-double
              Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
              Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files



CHARACTER SETS

       mkisofs  processes  file  names  in a POSIX compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for  all  languages,  8-bit
       characters  are  not  sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent  all  known  languages.
       They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by
       Microsoft with Win32 with the disadvantage that it only supports a sub-
       set of all codes and that 16-bit characters are not compliant with  the
       POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern  UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This
       coding allows to use the complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit  char-
       acter  is  represented by one or more 8-bit characters.  If a character
       is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and  North  America)  is
       maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.  If a character
       is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other  countries  with  limted
       character  set)  is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode
       character.  Character codes that cannot be represented as a single byte
       in  UTF-8  (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape sequences that
       map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs would not need
       to  recode  characters  in  file names.  Unfortunately, Apple uses com-
       pletely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a Unicode coding that is
       not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all  non  UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual character that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (which is
       the name used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system in use -
       the characters in a character set will reflect the  region  or  natural
       language used by the user.

       Usually   character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,  codes
       0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit  ASCII  characters  and  (on  PC’s  and  Mac’s)
       0x80-0xff  are used for other characters.  Unfortunately even this does
       not follow ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f  for  control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the same character
       code  may  represent a different character in different character sets.
       So a file name generated, say in central Europe, may  not  display  the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To  make matters more complicated, different operating systems use dif-
       ferent character sets for the region or language. For example the char-
       acter  code  for "small e with acute accent" may be character code 0x82
       on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while  the  codings  used on a PC or Mac are nonstandard, Unicode codes
       this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value as the
       value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and applications will use the Uni-
       code character set as the basis for file names in a unique way, it  may
       be  necessary to specify which character set your file names use in and
       which character set the file names should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
              Defines the local character set  you  are  using  on  your  host
              machine.  Any character set conversions that take place will use
              this character set as the staring point. The default input char-
              acter  sets  are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on all
              other systems.

              If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents  of  the
              input  character set will be used in the Joliet directory. Using
              the -jcharset option is the same as using the -input-charset and
              -J options.

       -output-charset
              Defines  the  character  set that will be used with for the Rock
              Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
              likely  to  be useful if used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using
              mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock  Ridge  CDs.
              If  you  are  using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it is likely that
              the output character set will be the same as the input character
              set.

       -input-hfs-charset
              Defines  the  HFS  character set used for HFS file names decoded
              from any of the various Apple/Unix  file  formats.  Only  useful
              when  used  with  -mac-name  option.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
              NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
              Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS file names from
              the  input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
              the character set given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
              to the input HFS character set.

       There  are  a  number  of character sets built in to mkisofs.  To get a
       listing, use mkisofs -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets can be read from file for any of the  charac-
       ter  set  options  by giving a filename as the argument to the options.
       The given file will only be read if its name does not match one of  the
       built in character sets.

       The  format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files
       available from  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS  The  format  of
       these files is:

            Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
            Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
            Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format
       or comments lines (starting with the # character) are  ignored  without
       any  warnings.  Any  missing  input code is mapped to Unicode character
       0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE  (UTF-16)  or  32  bit
       UNICODE  (UTF-32)  coding  because  this coding is not POSIX compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding which is compatible to
       POSIX  filenames  and  supported  by moder UNIX implementations such as
       Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as  the  argument  to  any  of  the  character set options. This is the
       behaviour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 file names generated from the input filenames are not  con-
       verted  from  the  input  character set. The ISO9660 character set is a
       very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any  character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a ’_’
       character.



HFS CREATOR/TYPE

       A Macintosh file has two properties associated  with  it  which  define
       which  application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually  this
       allows  a  Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the cor-
       rect application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can  be
       found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE  information  is  stored  in  all  the  various
       Apple/Unix encoded files.  For other files it is possible to  base  the
       CREATOR  and TYPE on the filename’s extension using a mapping file (the
       -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in  the
       first  few  bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these options
       are given, then their order on the command line is  important.  If  the
       -map  option  is  given  first,  then  a  filename  extension  match is
       attempted before a magic number match. However, if the -magic option is
       given  first,  then a magic number match is attempted before a filename
       extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found  then  the
       default  CREATOR  and  TYPE  for  all regular files can be set by using
       entries in  the  .mkisofsrc  file  or  using  the  -hfs-creator  and/or
       -hfs-type  options,  otherwise  the default CREATOR and TYPE are ’unix’
       and ’TEXT’.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format  as  used  by
       aufs.   This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
       CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with the ’#’  character  are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
       .tif     Raw     ’8BIM’    ’TIFF’   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx     Ascii   ’BnHq’    ’TEXT’   "BinHex file"
       .doc     Raw     ’MSWD’    ’WDBN’   "Word file"
       .mov     Raw     ’TVOD’    ’MooV’   "QuickTime Movie"
       *        Ascii   ’ttxt’    ’TEXT’   "Text file"

       Where:

              The  first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
              mapped. The default mapping  for  any  filename  extension  that
              doesn’t match is defined with the "*" character.

              The  Xlate  column  defines the type of text translation between
              the Unix and Macintosh file it is ignored  by  mkisofs,  but  is
              kept  to  be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs does not
              alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has it’s TYPE set
              as  ’TEXT’, it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore
              a better choice for the default TYPE may be ’????’

              The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must  be  4  characters  long  and
              enclosed in single quotes.

              The  comment  field is enclosed in double quotes - it is ignored
              by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical to the  magic(4)  file
       used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines for reading and decod-
       ing the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This file has four tab separated columns for  the  byte  offset,  type,
       test  and  message.   Lines starting with the ’#’ character are comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type      test       message
       0       string    GIF8       8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort   0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string    SIT!       SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string    \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
       0       string    \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string    %!         ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string    \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in the magic(4) man page. The  only
       difference  here  is that for each entry in the magic file, the message
       for the initial offset must be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4  characters  for the TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any
       other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines  (start-
       ing with a ’>’) are also ignored i.e. only the initial offset lines are
       used.

       Using the -magic option may significantly increase processing  time  as
       each file has to opened and read to find it’s magic number.

       In  summary,  for  all  files,  the  default  CREATOR is ’unix’ and the
       default TYPE is ’TEXT’.  These can be changed by using entries  in  the
       .mkisofsrc  file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format
       has been selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values
       stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from  their  file  name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If the default match is used in the mapping  file,  then  these  values
       override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A     full     CREATOR/TYPE     database     can     be     found    at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html



HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS

       Macintosh files have two parts  called  the  Data  and  Resource  fork.
       Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a  num-
       ber  of  attributes  associated with them - probably the most important
       are the TYPE and CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept of these  types  of
       attributes.

       e.g.  a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in
       the Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource  fork.  It
       is usually the information in the data fork that is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has  to
       be found to cope with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred to as the finder info).  Unfortunately, it  seems  that  every
       software  package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
              Data fork stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork  in  subdirectory
              .resource with same filename as data fork. Finder info in .find-
              erinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file  with
              same name prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
              file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/find-
              erinfo  stored  in  subdirectory  .AppleDouble with same name as
              data fork.

       AppleSingle
              Data structures similar to above, except both forks  and  finder
              info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork and finder info
              together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data  fork.

       IPT UShare
              Very  similar  to  the EtherShare format, but the finder info is
              stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
              Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
              Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files  on  DOS  (FAT)  disks.
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork in subdirectory
              resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info  as  one  record  in
              file  finder.dat  (or  FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for each
              data fork directory.

              Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size  of  the
              disk  that  the  PC  Exchange  files are on (or have been copied
              from). This size is given  by  the  -cluster-size  option.   The
              cluster or allocation size can be found by using the DOS utility
              CHKDSK.

              May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or  higher  files  (available
              with  MacOS 8.1).  DOS media containing PC Exchange files should
              be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
              Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored
              in  a  file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same
              name. Finder info as one record in file  .HSancillary.  Separate
              .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
              Allows  Macintoshes  to  store Apple files on SMB servers.  Data
              fork  stored  in  a  file.   Resource   fork   in   subdirectory
              resource.frk.  Uses  the  AppleDouble  format  to store resource
              fork.

       Services for Macintosh
              Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
              fork  is  stored  as  "filename". Resource fork stored as a NTFS
              stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder info is stored
              as  a  NTFS  stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These streams
              are normally invisible to the user.

              Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format.  If  an
              HFS  file  or folder stored on the NT server contains an illegal
              NT character in its name, then NT converts these  characters  to
              Private  Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?
               | also a space or period if it is the  last  character  of  the
              file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
              Apple’ apple logo.

              Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
              by  the  mkisofs  NT executable. Therefore any file or directory
              name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
              contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
              When  HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X on to a non-
              HFS file system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files  are  stored  in
              AppleDouble  format.   Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
              stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder  info
              also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
              Not  really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
              a MacOS X system. Data fork stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork
              stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with  the same name with the suffix
              ’/rsrc’. The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X  library
              call.

              Notes: (also see README.macosx)

              Only works when used on MacOS X.

              If  a  file  is found with a zero length resource fork and empty
              finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding  -
              therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs  will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other
       flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists,  the  Macintosh
       filename  is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name is
       based on the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE  NAMES  section
       below.

       When  using  the  -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the
       optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record -  in
       much  the  same  way  as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make
       life easy, the Apple extensions are  added  at  the  beginning  of  the
       existing  Rock  Ridge  attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you
       get the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource  fork  to  be  stored  as  an
       ISO9660  associated  file.  This is just like any normal file stored in
       the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is  set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files  are  nor-
       mally ignored by other OSs

       When  using  the  -hfs  option,  the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder
       info, are stored in a  separate  HFS  directory,  not  visible  on  the
       ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the same data and resource
       fork files described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use  the  -hfs  option  instead  of  the
       -apple  option,  as  the  latter imposes the limited ISO9660 characters
       allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the  advan-
       tage  that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it may
       be possible to fit more files on a CD - important when the  total  size
       of the source files is approaching 650MB.



HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES

       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part of the CD. However,  not  all  the  Apple/Unix
       encodings  store  the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases,
       the Unix filename is used - with escaped  special  characters.  Special
       characters include ’/’ and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs  escapes  these  characters by using ":" followed by the character
       code as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar  scheme,
       but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can’t find an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a  single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the  HFS  directory  separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
       file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.


       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a unique name by
       adding ’_’ characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the  starting  point  for  the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames
       using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix files without an HFS name  will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on
       the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this  is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However,
       as mkisofs uses the Unix name as  the  starting  point  for  the  other
       names,  then  the  ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would  be  someimage.gif.bin.   Although  the
       actual data (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS
       filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name  will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not  the  Macintosh
       name.

       The  character  set  used to convert any HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock
       Ridge file name defaults to cp10000 (Mac  Roman).   The  character  set
       used  can be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other built
       in HFS character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),  cp10007  (MacCyrillic),
       cp10029  (MacLatin2),  cp10079  (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurk-
       ish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character  set.  Only  the  Joliet/Rock  Ridge  names
       derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The  existing  mkisofs  code will filter out any illegal characters for
       the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be  dealing
       directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as is.  But as
       ’/’ is a legal HFS filename character, the  -mac-name  option  converts
       ’/’ to a ’_’ in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO9660 filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers  can
       use  Level  2  filenames, then you can use options like -allow-multidot
       without problems on a Macintosh - still take care over the  names,  for
       example  this.file.name  will  be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have
       one ’.’, also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but  abcdefghi
       will  be seen as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a ’.’ at the end - don’t know if
       this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All  filenames
       will be in upper case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...



HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS

       To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top  level)  folder
       includes a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a cus-
       tom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be  pasted  over  the  volume’s
       icon  in  the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called ’Icon\r’ (’\r’ is the ’carriage return’ character)  in  the
       root folder.

       A  custom  folder  icon  is  very  similar  -  an invisible file called
       ’Icon\r’ exits in the folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can  use,
       is  to  format  a  blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac, paste an icon to its
       "Get Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

                  mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as a CAP file system by default. Then run
       mkisofs using something like:

                  mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to  copy  the
       icon  file  from the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

                  hmount /dev/fd0
                  hdir -a
                  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where ’^V^M’ is control-V followed by control-M. Then  run  mkisofs  by
       using something like:

                  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar -
       paste an icon to folder’s "Get Info" box  and  transfer  the  resulting
       ’Icon\r’ file to the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You  may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]



HFS BOOT DRIVER

       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A  bootable  HFS  CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a
       bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file  can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our  case)  must  contain  a
       suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For  a  partition to be bootable, it must have it’s boot block set. The
       boot block is in the first two  blocks  of  a  partition.  For  a  non-
       bootable  partition  the  boot block is full of zeros. Normally, when a
       System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot  block
       is  filled  with  a number of required settings - unfortunately I don’t
       know the full spec for the boot block, so I’m guessing that the follow-
       ing will work OK.

       Therefore,  the  utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from
       the first HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this  is  used
       for the HFS partition created by mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
              By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to
              your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
              License Agreements.


EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE

       When the -boot-info-table option is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file specified by the -b option by inserting a 56-byte  "boot  informa-
       tion  table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done in the
       source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not eas-
       ily  recreated!  This file contains pointers which may not be easily or
       reliably obtained at boot time.

       The format of this table is as follows; all  integers  are  in  section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

         Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
          8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
         12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
         16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
         20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
         24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file
       starting at byte offset 64.  All  linear  block  addresses  (LBAs)  are
       given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).


CONFIGURATION

       mkisofs  looks  for  the  .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working
       directory, then in the user’s home directory, and then in the directory
       in which the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series of lines of the form TAG=value , and in this way you can spec-
       ify  certain  options.   The  case of the tag is not significant.  Some
       fields in the volume header are not settable on the command  line,  but
       can  be  altered through this facility.  Comments may be placed in this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The application identifier should describe the application  that
              will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
              ters of information.  May be overridden  using  the  -A  command
              line option.

       COPY   The  copyright information, often the name of a file on the disc
              containing the copyright notice.  There is space in the disc for
              37  characters  of  information.   May  be  overridden using the
              -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The abstract information, often the name of a file on  the  disc
              containing an abstract.  There is space in the disc for 37 char-
              acters of information.  May be overridden  using  the  -abstract
              command line option.

       BIBL   The  bibliographic  information, often the name of a file on the
              disc containing a bibliography.  There is space in the disc  for
              37  characters  of  information.   May  be  overridden using the
              -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually  with  a
              mailing  address  and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
              for 128 characters of information.  May be overridden using  the
              -p command line option.

       PUBL   This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a
              mailing address and phone number.  There is space  on  the  disc
              for  128 characters of information.  May be overridden using the
              -publisher command line option.

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32  char-
              acters  of information.  May be overridden using the -sysid com-
              mand line option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32  char-
              acters  of  information.  May be overridden using the -V command
              line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
              ters  of  information.  May be overridden using the -volset com-
              mand line option.

       HFS_TYPE
              The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4  charac-
              ters.   May  be  overridden  using  the  -hfs-type  command line
              option.

       HFS_CREATOR
              The default CREATOR for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 char-
              acters.   May  be overridden using the -hfs-creator command line
              option.

       mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults  for  many
       of these fields.  See the file defaults.h.



EXAMPLES

       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where
       the directory cd_dir will become the root directory if the CD, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock  Ridge  extensions  of  the  source  directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with  Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir where all files have at least read permission and all files  are
       owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To  write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a sim-
       ple iso9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
       cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions  of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To  create  a  HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving  all
       files  CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the ’Apple Extensions to ISO9660’, from the  source
       directories  cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based
       on their magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
               cd_dir another_dir

       The  following example puts different files on the CD that all have the
       name README, but have different contents when seen as  a  ISO9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the
       CD along with the three README files - but only one will be  seen  from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
               -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
               -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
               -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
               README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
               README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e.  the  file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and the
       other two README files will be hidden. Similarly  for  the  Joliet  and
       ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There  are probably all sorts of strange results possible with combina-
       tions of the hide options ...



AUTHOR

       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix,  because  we
       must  generate  a complete  copy of an existing filesystem on a disk in
       the  iso9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs is probably a bit of a  mis-
       nomer,  since it not only creates the filesystem, but it also populates
       it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name for a  UNIX  tool  that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

       Eric  Youngdale  <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or <eric@andante.org> wrote the
       first versions (1993 ... 1998) of the mkisofs utility.   The  copyright
       for old versions of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote the  SCSI  transport  library  and
       it’s  adaptation  layer to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1999)
       of the utility, this makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001 Joerg
       Schilling.

       HFS  hybrid  code  Copyright  (C) James Pearson 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
       2001
       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie
       libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990,  1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.


NOTES

       Mkisofs  may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to allow
       mkisofs to read the previous session  when  creating  a  multi  session
       image.

       If  mkisofs  is  creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes
       and the directory nesting level of the source  directory  tree  is  too
       much  for  ISO-9660,  mkisofs  will do deep directory relocation.  This
       results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You cannot avoid this directory.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely follows the official Sparc CD  boot  requirements  from  the
       Boot prom in Sun Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions for Sparc sys-
       tems use a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately is not  Sparc  CD
       boot compliant.  It is annoyingly to see that the Authors of SILO don’t
       fix SILO but instead provide a completely unneeded "patch"  to  mkisofs
       that incorporates far more source than the fix for SILO would need.


BUGS

       ·      Any  files  that  have hard links to files not in the tree being
              copied to the iso9660 filesystem will  have  an  incorrect  file
              reference count.

       ·      Does  not  check  for  SUSP  record(s)  in "." entry of the root
              directory to verify the existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.

              This problem is present when reading old sessions  while  adding
              data in multi-session mode.

       ·      Does  not  properly  read relocated directories in multi-session
              mode when adding data.

              Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
              include the deep directory.

              Repeat  by:  create first session with deep directory relocation
              then add new session with a single dir that differs from the old
              deep path.

       ·      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session from TRANS.TBL

       ·      Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED  in  multi-session
              mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.



HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS

       I  have  had  to  make several assumptions on how I expect the modified
       libhfs routines to work, however there may be situations that either  I
       haven’t thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.  There-
       fore I can’t guarantee that mkisofs will work as expected  (although  I
       haven’t  had  a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
       however, some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a unique name by
       adding ’_’ characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have _N’ (N
       ==  decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above  for the method and syntax involved). It is not possible to use a
       new name for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded  file  called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you can not
       use the command line:

              mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs will be unable to decode  "oldname".  However,  you  can  graft
       Apple/Unix  encoded  files or directories as long as you do not attempt
       to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M  and  -C,
       only  files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However, if each session is created with the -part  option,  then  each
       session  will appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In this
       case, it is worth using the -V or -hfs-volid option to give  each  ses-
       sion  a  unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear on the
       Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not  added  to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes  may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the
       same data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be  significantly  larger.  As  an  HFS volume gets bigger, so does the
       allocation block size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy).
       For  a  650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD it will
       be about 70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -  although
       the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The  resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it  is  set  as  locked.   The option -hfs-unlock will create an output
       image that is unlocked - however no changes should be made to the  con-
       tents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it’s
       not a "real" HFS volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the  Unix  name  will  be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a  file,  if  a  binary
       file  has it’s TYPE set as ’TEXT’, it may be read incorrectly on a Mac-
       intosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ’????’

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2  or  higher  files  (available  with
       MacOS  8.1).   DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported -  see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It  is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options
       with the -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot options.

       mkisofs should be able to create HFS hybrid images over  4Gb,  although
       this has not been fully tested.



SEE ALSO

       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).



FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

       Some sort of gui interface.


AVAILABILITY

       mkisofs   is   available   as   part   of  the  cdrecord  package  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree  is  available  as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools  package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/


MAILING LISTS

       If you want to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, and/or
       mkhybrid, you may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

                 other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail  address  of  the
       list is:

                 cdwrite@lists.debian.org



MAINTAINER

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany


HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER

       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk


       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       If you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support



Version 2.01                      14 Feb 2003                       MKISOFS(8)

Man(1) output converted with man2html