nm



NM(1)                        GNU Development Tools                       NM(1)




NAME

       nm - list symbols from object files


SYNOPSIS

       nm [-a--debug-syms] [-g--extern-only]
          [-B] [-C--demangle[=style]] [-D--dynamic]
          [-S--print-size] [-s--print-armap]
          [-A-o--print-file-name][--special-syms]
          [-n-v--numeric-sort] [-p--no-sort]
          [-r--reverse-sort] [--size-sort] [-u--undefined-only]
          [-t radix--radix=radix] [-P--portability]
          [--target=bfdname] [-fformat--format=format]
          [--defined-only] [-l--line-numbers] [--no-demangle]
          [-V--version] [-X 32_64] [--help]  [objfile...]


DESCRIPTION

       GNU  nm  lists  the symbols from object files objfile....  If no object
       files are listed as arguments, nm assumes the file a.out.

       For each symbol, nm shows:

       ·   The symbol value, in the radix selected by options (see below),  or
           hexadecimal by default.

       ·   The  symbol  type.   At  least the following types are used; others
           are, as well, depending on the object file format.   If  lowercase,
           the symbol is local; if uppercase, the symbol is global (external).

           "A" The symbol’s value is absolute, and will not be changed by fur-
               ther linking.

           "B" The symbol is in the uninitialized data section (known as BSS).

           "C" The symbol is common.  Common symbols are  uninitialized  data.
               When  linking, multiple common symbols may appear with the same
               name.  If the symbol is defined anywhere,  the  common  symbols
               are treated as undefined references.

           "D" The symbol is in the initialized data section.

           "G" The symbol is in an initialized data section for small objects.
               Some object file formats permit more efficient access to  small
               data  objects,  such  as  a global int variable as opposed to a
               large global array.

           "I" The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol.  This is
               a GNU extension to the a.out object file format which is rarely
               used.

           "N" The symbol is a debugging symbol.

           "R" The symbol is in a read only data section.

           "S" The symbol is  in  an  uninitialized  data  section  for  small
               objects.

           "T" The symbol is in the text (code) section.

           "U" The symbol is undefined.

           "V" The  symbol  is  a  weak object.  When a weak defined symbol is
               linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined  symbol
               is  used with no error.  When a weak undefined symbol is linked
               and the symbol is not defined, the value  of  the  weak  symbol
               becomes zero with no error.

           "W" The  symbol  is  a  weak  symbol that has not been specifically
               tagged as a weak object symbol.  When a weak defined symbol  is
               linked  with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined symbol
               is used with no error.  When a weak undefined symbol is  linked
               and  the  symbol  is  not  defined,  the value of the symbol is
               determined in a system-specific manner without error.  On  some
               systems,  uppercase  indicates  that  a  default value has been
               specified.

           "-" The symbol is a stabs symbol in an a.out object file.  In  this
               case,  the  next  values printed are the stabs other field, the
               stabs desc field, and the stab type.  Stabs symbols are used to
               hold debugging information.

           "?" The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.

       ·   The symbol name.


OPTIONS

       The  long  and  short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
       equivalent.

       -A
       -o
       --print-file-name
           Precede each symbol by the name of the input file (or archive  mem-
           ber)  in which it was found, rather than identifying the input file
           once only, before all of its symbols.

       -a
       --debug-syms
           Display all symbols, even debugger-only symbols; normally these are
           not listed.

       -B  The same as --format=bsd (for compatibility with the MIPS nm).

       -C
       --demangle[=style]
           Decode  (demangle)  low-level  symbol  names into user-level names.
           Besides removing any initial underscore prepended  by  the  system,
           this  makes  C++  function names readable. Different compilers have
           different mangling styles. The optional demangling  style  argument
           can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your com-
           piler.

       --no-demangle
           Do not demangle low-level symbol names.  This is the default.

       -D
       --dynamic
           Display the dynamic symbols rather than the normal  symbols.   This
           is  only  meaningful  for dynamic objects, such as certain types of
           shared libraries.

       -f format
       --format=format
           Use the output format  format,  which  can  be  "bsd",  "sysv",  or
           "posix".  The default is "bsd".  Only the first character of format
           is significant; it can be either upper or lower case.

       -g
       --extern-only
           Display only external symbols.

       -l
       --line-numbers
           For each symbol, use debugging information to try to find  a  file-
           name and line number.  For a defined symbol, look for the line num-
           ber of the address of the symbol.  For an  undefined  symbol,  look
           for  the line number of a relocation entry which refers to the sym-
           bol.  If line number information can be found, print it  after  the
           other symbol information.

       -n
       -v
       --numeric-sort
           Sort symbols numerically by their addresses, rather than alphabeti-
           cally by their names.

       -p
       --no-sort
           Do not bother to sort the symbols in any order; print them  in  the
           order encountered.

       -P
       --portability
           Use  the POSIX.2 standard output format instead of the default for-
           mat.  Equivalent to -f posix.

       -S
       --print-size
           Print size, not the value, of defined symbols for the "bsd"  output
           format.

       -s
       --print-armap
           When  listing  symbols  from  archive members, include the index: a
           mapping (stored in the archive by ar or ranlib)  of  which  modules
           contain definitions for which names.

       -r
       --reverse-sort
           Reverse  the order of the sort (whether numeric or alphabetic); let
           the last come first.

       --size-sort
           Sort symbols by size.  The  size  is  computed  as  the  difference
           between  the  value  of the symbol and the value of the symbol with
           the next higher value.  If the "bsd" output format is used the size
           of  the  symbol  is  printed, rather than the value, and -S must be
           used in order both size and value to be printed.

       --special-syms
           Display symbols  which  have  a  target-specific  special  meaning.
           These  symbols are usually used by the target for some special pro-
           cessing and are not normally helpful when included included in  the
           normal symbol lists.  For example for ARM targets this option would
           skip the mapping symbols used  to  mark  transistions  between  ARM
           code, THUMB code and data.

       -t radix
       --radix=radix
           Use  radix as the radix for printing the symbol values.  It must be
           d for decimal, o for octal, or x for hexadecimal.

       --target=bfdname
           Specify an object code format other than your system’s default for-
           mat.

       -u
       --undefined-only
           Display  only  undefined  symbols  (those  external  to each object
           file).

       --defined-only
           Display only defined symbols for each object file.

       -V
       --version
           Show the version number of nm and exit.

       -X  This option is ignored for compatibility with the  AIX  version  of
           nm.   It  takes  one parameter which must be the string 32_64.  The
           default mode of AIX nm corresponds to -X 32, which is not supported
           by GNU nm.

       --help
           Show a summary of the options to nm and exit.


SEE ALSO

       ar(1), objdump(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for binutils.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright  (c)  1991,  1992,  1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
       2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this  document
       under  the  terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software  Foundation;  with  no
       Invariant  Sections,  with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ‘‘GNU
       Free Documentation License’’.



binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2            2005-06-29                             NM(1)

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