TFTPD(8) System Managerâ€™s Manual TFTPD(8)
tftpd - IPv4 Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
in.tftpd [options...] directory...
tftpd is a server for the IPv4 Trivial File Transfer Protocol. The
TFTP protocol is extensively used to support remote booting of diskless
devices. The server is normally started by inetd, but can also run
-l Run the server in standalone (listen) mode, rather than run from
inetd. In listen mode, the -t option is ignored, and the -a
option can be used to specify a specific local address or port
to listen to.
Specify a specific address and port to listen to when called
with the -l option. The default is to listen to the tftp port
specified in /etc/services on all local addresses.
-c Allow new files to be created. By default, tftpd will only
allow upload of files that already exist. Files are created
with default permissions allowing anyone to read or write them,
unless the -p or -U options are specified.
-s Change root directory on startup. This means the remote host
does not need to pass along the directory as part of the trans-
fer, and may add security. When -s is specified, exactly one
directory should be specified on the command line. The use of
this option is recommended for security as well as compatibility
with some boot ROMs which cannot be easily made to include a
directory name in its request.
Specify the username which tftpd will run as; the default is
"nobody". The user ID, group ID, and (if possible on the plat-
form) the supplementary group IDs will be set to the ones speci-
fied in the system permission database for this username.
Sets the umask for newly created files to the specified value.
The default is zero (anyone can read or write) if the -p option
is not specified, or inherited from the invoking process if -p
-p Perform no additional permissions checks above the normal sys-
tem-provided access controls for the user specified via the -u
When run from inetd this specifies how long, in seconds, to wait
for a second connection before terminating the server. inetd
will then respawn the server when another request comes in. The
default is 900 (15 minutes.)
Determine the default timeout, in microseconds, before the first
packet is retransmitted. This can be modified by the client if
the timeout or utimeout option is negotiated. The default is
1000000 (1 second.)
Specify the use of filename remapping. The remap-file is a file
containing the remapping rules. See the section on filename
remapping below. This option may not be compiled in, see the
output of in.tftpd -V to verify whether or not it is available.
-v Increase the logging verbosity of tftpd. This flag can be spec-
ified multiple times for even higher verbosity.
Indicate that a specific RFC 2347 TFTP option should never be
Specifies the maximum permitted block size. The permitted range
for this parameter is from 512 to 65464. Some embedded clients
request large block sizes and yet do not handle fragmented pack-
ets correctly; for these clients, it is recommended to set this
value to the smallest MTU on your network minus 32 bytes (20
bytes for IP, 8 for UDP, and 4 for TFTP; less if you use IP
options on your network.) For example, on a standard Ethernet
(MTU 1500) a value of 1468 is reasonable.
-V Print the version number and configuration to standard output,
then exit gracefully.
RFC 2347 OPTION NEGOTIATION
This version of tftpd supports RFC 2347 option negotation. Currently
implemented options are:
blksize (RFC 2348)
Set the transfer block size to anything less than or equal to
the specified option. This version of tftpd can support any
block size up to the theoretical maximum of 65464 bytes.
Set the transfer block size to anything less than or equal to
the specified option, but restrict the possible responses to
powers of 2. The maximum is 32768 bytes (the largest power of 2
less than or equal to 65464.)
tsize (RFC 2349)
Report the size of the file that is about to be transferred.
This version of tftpd only supports the tsize option for binary
(octet) mode transfers.
timeout (RFC 2349)
Set the time before the server retransmits a packet, in seconds.
Set the time before the server retransmits a packet, in
The -r option can be used to disable specific options; this may be nec-
essary to work around bugs in specific TFTP client implementations.
For example, some TFTP clients have been found to request the blksize
option, but crash with an error if they actually get the option
accepted by the server.
The -m option specifies a file which contains filename remapping rules.
Each non-comment line (comments begin with hash marks, #) contains an
operation, specified below; a regex, a regular expression in the style
of egrep; and optionally a replacement pattern. The operation indi-
cated by operation is performed if the regex matches all or part of the
filename. Rules are processed from the top down, and by default, all
rules are processed even if there is a match.
The operation can be any combination of the following letters:
r Replace the substring matched by regex by the replacement pat-
tern. The replacement pattern may contain escape sequences; see
g Repeat this rule until it no longer matches. This is always
used with r.
i Match the regex case-insensitively. By default it is case sen-
e If this rule matches, end rule processing after executing the
s If this rule matches, start rule processing over from the very
first rule after executing this rule.
a If this rule matches, refuse the request and send an access
denied error to the client.
G This rule applies to GET (RRQ) requests only.
P This rule applies to PUT (WRQ) requests only.
~ Inverse the sense of this rule, i.e. execute the operation only
if the regex doesnâ€™t match. Cannot used together with r.
The following escape sequences are recognized as part of the replace-
\0 The entire string matched by the regex.
\1 to \9
The strings matched by each of the first nine parenthesized
subexpressions, \( ... \), of the regex pattern.
\i The IP address of the requesting host, in dotted-quad notation
\x The IP address of the requesting host, in hexadecimal notation
\\ Literal backslash.
\# Literal hash mark.
\U Turns all subsequent letters to upper case.
\L Turns all subsequent letters to lower case.
\E Cancels the effect of \U or \L.
If the mapping file is changed, you need to send SIGHUP to any out-
standing tftpd process.
The use of TFTP services does not require an account or password on the
server system. Due to the lack of authentication information, tftpd
will allow only publicly readable files (o+r) to be accessed, unless
the -p option is specified. Files may be written only if they already
exist and are publicly writable, unless the -c option is specified.
Note that this extends the concept of â€˜â€˜publicâ€™â€™ to include all users
on all hosts that can be reached through the network; this may not be
appropriate on all systems, and its implications should be considered
before enabling TFTP service. Typically, some kind of firewall or
packet-filter solution should be employed. If appropriately compiled
(see the output of in.tftpd -V) tftpd will query the hosts_access(5)
database for access control information. This may be slow; sites
requiring maximum performance may want to compile without this option
and rely on firewalling or kernel-based packet filters instead.
The server should be set to run as the user with the lowest possible
privilege; please see the -u flag. It is probably a good idea to set
up a specific user account for tftpd, rather than letting it run as
"nobody", to guard against privilege leaks between applications.
Access to files can, and should, be restricted by invoking tftpd with a
list of directories by including pathnames as server program arguments
on the command line. In this case access is restricted to files whole
names are prefixed by one of the given directories. If possible, it is
recommended that the -s flag is used to set up a chroot() environment
for the server to run in once a connection has been set up.
Finally, the filename remapping (-m flag) support can be used to pro-
vide a limited amount of additional access control.
RFC 1123, Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support.
RFC 1350, The TFTP Protocol (revision 2).
RFC 2347, TFTP Option Extension.
RFC 2348, TFTP Blocksize Option.
RFC 2349, TFTP Timeout Interval and Transfer Size Options.
This version of tftpd is maintained by H. Peter Anvin <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
It was derived from, but has substantially diverged from, an OpenBSD
source base, with added patches by Markus Gutschke and Gero Kulhman.
tftp(1), egrep(1), umask(2), hosts_access(5), regex(7), inetd(8).
tftp-hpa 0.40 3 September 2004 TFTPD(8)
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