twm



TWM(1)                                                                  TWM(1)




NAME

       twm - Tab Window Manager for the X Window System


SYNTAX

       twm [ -display dpy ] [ -s ] [ -f initfile ] [ -v ]


DESCRIPTION

       Twm  is  a  window manager for the X Window System.  It provides title-
       bars, shaped windows, several forms of  icon  management,  user-defined
       macro  functions,  click-to-type and pointer-driven keyboard focus, and
       user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This program is usually  started  by  the  user’s  session  manager  or
       startup  script.   When  used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session
       manager, twm is frequently executed  in  the  foreground  as  the  last
       client.  When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be termi-
       nated (i.e., logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a  ‘‘frame’’  with  a
       titlebar at the top and a special border around the window.  The title-
       bar contains the window’s name, a rectangle that is lit when the window
       is  receiving  keyboard  input, and function boxes known as ‘‘titlebut-
       tons’’ at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing pointer Button1 (usually the left-most button  unless  it  has
       been  changed  with  xmodmap) on a titlebutton will invoke the function
       associated with the button.  In  the  default  interface,  windows  are
       iconified  by  clicking  (pressing  and then immediately releasing) the
       left titlebutton (which looks like a  Dot).   Conversely,  windows  are
       deiconified  by  clicking  in  the associated icon or entry in the icon
       manager (see description of the variable  ShowIconManager  and  of  the
       function f.showiconmgr).

       Windows  are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which resembles
       a group of nested squares), dragging the pointer over edge that  is  to
       be  moved,  and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is
       the desired size.  Similarly, windows are  moved  by  pressing  in  the
       title  or  highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new loca-
       tion, and then releasing when the outline is in the  desired  position.
       Just  clicking in the title or highlight region raises the window with-
       out moving it.

       When new windows are created, twm will  honor  any  size  and  location
       information  requested  by  the user (usually through -geometry command
       line argument or resources for the  individual  applications).   Other-
       wise,  an outline of the window’s default size, its titlebar, and lines
       dividing the window into a 3x3 grid that track  the  pointer  are  dis-
       played.   Clicking pointer Button1 will position the window at the cur-
       rent position and give it the default size.  Pressing  pointer  Button2
       (usually  the middle pointer button) and dragging the outline will give
       the window its current position but allow the sides to  be  resized  as
       described  above.   Clicking pointer Button3 (usually the right pointer
       button) will give the window its current position but attempt  to  make
       it long enough to touch the bottom the screen.


OPTIONS

       Twm accepts the following command line options:


       -display dpy
               This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This  option  indicates that only the default screen (as speci-
               fied by -display or by the DISPLAY environment variable) should
               be managed.  By default, twm will attempt to manage all screens
               on the display.

       -f filename
               This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.   By
               default,  twm  will look in the user’s home directory for files
               named .twmrc.num (where num is a screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This option indicates that  twm  should  print  error  messages
               whenever  an unexpected X Error event is received.  This can be
               useful when debugging applications but can  be  distracting  in
               regular use.


CUSTOMIZATION

       Much  of twm’s appearance and behavior can be controlled by providing a
       startup file in one of the following locations (searched in  order  for
       each screen being managed when twm begins):

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
               The  screennumber  is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.)
               representing the screen number (e.g. the  last  number  in  the
               DISPLAY  environment  variable  host:displaynum.screennum) that
               would be used to contact that screen of the display.   This  is
               intended for displays with multiple screens of differing visual
               types.

       $HOME/.twmrc
               This is the usual name for an individual user’s startup file.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc
               If neither of the preceding files are found, twm will  look  in
               this  file for a default configuration.  This is often tailored
               by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or famil-
               iar bindings for novice users.

       If  no  startup  files  are  found,  twm will use the built-in defaults
       described above.  The only resource used by twm is bitmapFilePath for a
       colon-separated  list  of directories to search when looking for bitmap
       files  (for  more  information,  see  the  Athena  Widgets  manual  and
       xrdb(1)).

       Twm  startup files are logically broken up into three types of specifi-
       cations:  Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section must  come
       first  and  is  used  to  describe  the  fonts, colors, cursors, border
       widths, icon and window placement, highlighting, autoraising, layout of
       titles, warping, use of the icon manager.  The Bindings section usually
       comes second and is used to specify the functions that should be to  be
       invoked  when  keyboard  and  pointer  buttons  are pressed in windows,
       icons, titles, and frames.  The Menus section  gives  any  user-defined
       menus  (containing functions to be invoked or commands to be executed).

       Variable names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be sur-
       rounded  by  double  quote characters (e.g. "blue") and are case-sensi-
       tive.  A pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the remainder of the
       line in which the character appears to be treated as a comment.


VARIABLES

       Many of the aspects of twm’s user interface are controlled by variables
       that may be set in the user’s startup file.  Some of  the  options  are
       enabled  or  disabled  simply  by the presence of a particular keyword.
       Other options require keywords, numbers, strings, or lists  of  all  of
       these.

       Lists  are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by whitespace
       or a newline.  For example:

            AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }

       or

            AutoRaise
            {
                 "emacs"
                 "XTerm"
                 "Xmh"
            }

       When a variable containing a list of strings  representing  windows  is
       searched (e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string must be an exact, case-sensitive match to the window’s
       name  (given  by  the  WM_NAME window property), resource name or class
       name (both given by the WM_CLASS window property).  The preceding exam-
       ple  would  enable  autoraise on windows named ‘‘emacs’’ as well as any
       xterm (since they are of class ‘‘XTerm’’) or xmh windows (which are  of
       class ‘‘Xmh’’).

       String  arguments  that  are interpreted as filenames (see the Pixmaps,
       Cursors, and IconDirectory below) will  prepend  the  user’s  directory
       (specified  by the HOME environment variable) if the first character is
       a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is  assumed  to  refer  to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or :delete (both refer to
       the  X  logo),  :dot  or :iconify (both refer to the dot), :resize (the
       nested squares used by the resize button), :menu (a page  with  lines),
       and :question (the question mark used for non-existent bitmap files).

       The  following  variables  may be specified at the top of a twm startup
       file.  Lists of Window name prefix strings are indicated  by  win-list.
       Optional arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should automati-
               cally be raised whenever the pointer enters the  window.   This
               action  can  be interactively enabled or disabled on individual
               windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
               This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
               when  initially  sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when
               resizing it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed  the
               window edges.  Instead, moving the pointer automatically causes
               the nearest edge or edges to move by  the  same  amount.   This
               allows  the resizing of windows that extend off the edge of the
               screen.  If the pointer is in the center of the window,  or  if
               the  resize  is begun by pressing a titlebutton, twm will still
               wait for the pointer to cross a window edge (to  prevent  acci-
               dents).  This option is particularly useful for people who like
               the press-drag-release method of sweeping out window sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default color of the border  to  be
               placed  around all non-iconified windows, and may only be given
               within a Color, Grayscale or  Monochrome  list.   The  optional
               wincolorlist  specifies  a  list of window and color name pairs
               for specifying particular border colors for different types  of
               windows.  For example:

                    BorderColor "gray50"
                    {
                         "XTerm"   "red"
                         "xmh"     "green"
                    }

               The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This  variable  specifies  the  default background color in the
               gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight
               hasn’t  been  set),  and  may  only  be  given  within a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows
               per-window colors to be specified.  The default  is "white".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This  variable  specifies  the  default foreground color in the
               gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight
               hasn’t  been  set),  and  may  only  be  given  within a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows
               per-window colors to be specified.  The default is "black".

       BorderWidth pixels
               This  variable specifies the width in pixels of the border sur-
               rounding all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has  not
               been specified.  This value is also used to set the border size
               of windows created by twm (such  as  the  icon  manager).   The
               default is 2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
               This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons should
               be indented on all sides.  Positive values cause the buttons to
               be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they
               stand out.  Setting this and the  TitleButtonBorderWidth  vari-
               ables  to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as possible.
               The default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
               This variable indicates that border width of a  window’s  frame
               should be set to the initial border width of the window, rather
               than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be  made
               if  the default display is capable of displaying more than sim-
               ple black and white.  The colors-list is made up of the follow-
               ing   color  variables  and  their  values:  DefaultBackground,
               DefaultForeground, MenuBackground,  MenuForeground,  MenuTitle-
               Background,  MenuTitleForeground,  MenuShadowColor, MenuBorder-
               Color, PointerForeground, and PointerBackground.  The following
               color  variables  may  also be given a list of window and color
               name pairs to allow per-window colors to be specified (see Bor-
               derColor  for details): BorderColor, IconManagerHighlight, Bor-
               derTitleBackground,   BorderTitleForeground,   TitleBackground,
               TitleForeground,  IconBackground,  IconForeground,  IconBorder-
               Color, IconManagerBackground, and  IconManagerForeground.   For
               example:

                    Color
                    {
                         MenuBackground      "gray50"
                         MenuForeground      "blue"
                         BorderColor              "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
                         TitleForeground          "yellow"
                         TitleBackground          "blue"
                    }

               All  of  these  color  variables  may also be specified for the
               Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization  file  to
               be used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
               This  variable  specifies  the  length  of  time between button
               clicks needed to begin a constrained  move  operation.   Double
               clicking  within  this amount of time when invoking f.move will
               cause the window to be moved only in a horizontal  or  vertical
               direction.   Setting  this  value to 0 will disable constrained
               moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
               This variable specifies the glyphs that twm should use for var-
               ious  pointer  cursors.  Each cursor may be defined either from
               the cursor font or from two bitmap files.  Shapes from the cur-
               sor font may be specified directly as:

                         cursorname     "string"

               where  cursorname  is one of the cursor names listed below, and
               string  is  the  name  of  a  glyph  as  found  in   the   file
               /usr/X11R6/include/X11/cursorfont.h  (without  the ‘‘XC_’’ pre-
               fix).  If the cursor is to be defined from  bitmap  files,  the
               following syntax is used instead:

                         cursorname     "image"   "mask"

               The  image and mask strings specify the names of files contain-
               ing the glyph image and mask in  bitmap(1)  form.   The  bitmap
               files are located in the same manner as icon bitmap files.  The
               following example shows the default cursor definitions:

                    Cursors
                    {
                         Frame          "top_left_arrow"
                         Title          "top_left_arrow"
                         Icon      "top_left_arrow"
                         IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
                         Move      "fleur"
                         Resize         "fleur"
                         Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
                         Button         "hand2"
                         Wait      "watch"
                         Select         "dot"
                         Destroy   "pirate"
                    }


       DecorateTransients
               This variable indicates that transient windows (those  contain-
               ing  a  WM_TRANSIENT_FOR  property)  should have titlebars.  By
               default, transients are not reparented.

       DefaultBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color  to  be  used  for
               sizing and information windows.  The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
               This  variable  specifies  the  foreground color to be used for
               sizing and information windows.  The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that  should  not  be
               iconified  by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case
               if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).  This is  frequently  used
               to  force  some windows to be treated as icons while other win-
               dows are handled by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
               This variable indicates that windows should not be  allowed  to
               be  moved off the screen.  It can be overridden by the f.force-
               move function.

       DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that titlebars should not  be  squeezed
               to  their  minimum  size as described under SqueezeTitle below.
               If the optional window list is  supplied,  only  those  windows
               will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
               This  variable  indicates  that  icon  pixmaps specified in the
               Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
               This variable specifies the distance between the titlebar deco-
               rations  (the  button  and  text)  and  the  window frame.  The
               default is 2 pixels.

       Grayscale { colors }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should
               be  made if the screen has a GrayScale default visual.  See the
               description of Colors.

       IconBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color of icons, and  may
               only  be  specified  inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
               list.  The optional win-list is a list of window names and col-
               ors  so  that per-window colors may be specified.  See the Bor-
               derColor variable for a complete description of  the  win-list.
               The default is "white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  specifies the color of the border used for icon
               windows, and may only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale
               or  Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors  may  be  specified.
               See  the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
               rounding icon windows.  The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
               This  variable  specifies the directory that should be searched
               if if a bitmap file cannot be found in any of  the  directories
               in the bitmapFilePath resource.

       IconFont string
               This  variable  specifies  the  font to be used to display icon
               names within icons.  The default is "variable".

       IconForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color to  be  used  when
               displaying  icons, and may only be specified inside of a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a  list
               of  window  names  and  colors so that per-window colors may be
               specified.   See  the  BorderColor  variable  for  a   complete
               description of the win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  indicates  that  windows should be iconified by
               being unmapped without trying to map any icons.   This  assumes
               that  the  user will remap the window through the icon manager,
               the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows menu.  If the optional
               win-list  is  provided, only those windows will be iconified by
               simply unmapping.  Windows that have both this and the IconMan-
               agerDontShow options set may not be accessible if no binding to
               the TwmWindows menu is set in the user’s startup file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color to  use  for  icon
               manager  entries,  and may only be specified inside of a Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a  list
               of  window  names  and  colors so that per-window colors may be
               specified.   See  the  BorderColor  variable  for  a   complete
               description of the win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  indicates that the icon manager should not dis-
               play any windows.  If the  optional  win-list  is  given,  only
               those  windows will not be displayed.  This variable is used to
               prevent windows that are rarely iconified (such  as  xclock  or
               xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
               This  variable  specifies  the  font to be used when displaying
               icon manager entries.  The default is "variable".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color to  be  used  when
               displaying  icon  manager  entries,  and  may only be specified
               inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The  optional
               win-list  is a list of window names and colors so that per-win-
               dow colors may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable  for
               a  complete  description  of  the  win-list.   The  default  is
               "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
               This variable specifies the geometry of the icon  manager  win-
               dow.   The  string  argument is standard geometry specification
               that indicates the initial full size of the icon manager.   The
               icon  manager  window  is  then  broken into columns pieces and
               scaled according to the number of entries in the icon  manager.
               Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default
               number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the border color to be used when  high-
               lighting  the  icon manager entry that currently has the focus,
               and can only be specified  inside  of  a  Color,  Grayscale  or
               Monochrome  list.   The  optional  win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors  may  be  specified.
               See  the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
               This variable specifies a list  of  icon  managers  to  create.
               Each item in the iconmgr-list has the following format:

                         "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry" columns

               where  winname  is  the  name of the windows that should be put
               into this icon manager, iconname is the name of that icon  man-
               ager  window’s icon, geometry is a standard geometry specifica-
               tion, and columns is the number of columns in this icon manager
               as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:

                    IconManagers
                    {
                         "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
                         "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
                    }

               Clients  whose  name  or  class is ‘‘XTerm’’ will have an entry
               created in the ‘‘XTerm’’ icon manager.  Clients whose name  was
               ‘‘myhost’’ would be put into the ‘‘myhost’’ icon manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in
               the icon manager.  When used in conjunction with  the  IconMan-
               agerDontShow  variable,  only  the windows in this list will be
               shown in the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
               This variable specifies an area on the  root  window  in  which
               icons  are  placed  if no specific icon location is provided by
               the client.  The geomstring is a  quoted  string  containing  a
               standard  geometry  specification.  If more than one IconRegion
               lines are given, icons will be put  into  the  succeeding  icon
               regions  when  the first is full.  The vgrav argument should be
               either North or South  and  control  and  is  used  to  control
               whether icons are first filled in from the top or bottom of the
               icon region.  Similarly, the hgrav argument  should  be  either
               East  or  West  and  is used to control whether icons should be
               filled in from left from the right.  Icons are laid out  within
               the region in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and grid-
               height pixels high.

       Icons { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of window names and  the  bitmap
               filenames that should be used as their icons.  For example:

                    Icons
                    {
                         "XTerm"   "xterm.icon"
                         "xfd"          "xfd_icon"
                    }

               Windows  that  match  ‘‘XTerm’’  and  would not be iconified by
               unmapping, and would try to use the icon  bitmap  in  the  file
               ‘‘xterm.icon’’.   If  ForceIcons is specified, this bitmap will
               be used even if the client has requested its own icon pixmap.

       InterpolateMenuColors
               This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be inter-
               polated between entry specified colors.  In the example below:

                    Menu "mymenu"
                    {
                         "Title"        ("black":"red")          f.title
                         "entry1"                 f.nop
                         "entry2"                 f.nop
                         "entry3"  ("white":"green")   f.nop
                         "entry4"                 f.nop
                         "entry5"  ("red":"white")          f.nop
                    }

               the  foreground  colors  for  ‘‘entry1’’ and ‘‘entry2’’ will be
               interpolated between black and white, and the background colors
               between   red   and   green.   Similarly,  the  foreground  for
               ‘‘entry4’’ will be half-way between  white  and  red,  and  the
               background will be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
               This  variable  specifies a list of windows on which a titlebar
               should be placed and is used  to  request  titles  on  specific
               windows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
               This  variable  specifies  a  geometry  in  which the width and
               height give the maximum size for a given window.  This is typi-
               cally  used to restrict windows to the size of the screen.  The
               default width is 32767 - screen width.  The default  height  is
               32767 - screen height.

       MenuBackground string
               This  variable  specifies  the background color used for menus,
               and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.
               The default is "white".

       MenuBorderColor string
               This  variable  specifies  the color of the menu border and can
               only be specified inside of a Color,  Grayscale  or  Monochrome
               list.  The default is "black".

       MenuBorderWidth pixels
               This  variable specifies the width in pixels of the border sur-
               rounding menu windows.  The default is 2.

       MenuFont string
               This variable specifies the font to use when displaying  menus.
               The default is "variable".

       MenuForeground string
               This  variable  specifies  the foreground color used for menus,
               and can only be specified  inside  of  a  Color,  Grayscale  or
               Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
               This  variable  specifies  the color of the shadow behind pull-
               down menus and  can  only  be  specified  inside  of  a  Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
               This  variable  specifies  the  background  color  for  f.title
               entries in menus, and can only be specified inside of a  Color,
               Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "white".

       MenuTitleForeground string
               This  variable  specifies  the  foreground  color  for  f.title
               entries in menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       Monochrome { colors }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should
               be made if the screen has a depth of 1.  See the description of
               Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
               This  variable  specifies the number of pixels the pointer must
               move before the f.move function starts working.  Also  see  the
               f.deltastop function.  The default is zero pixels.

       NoBackingStore
               This  variable  indicates  that  twm’s menus should not request
               backing store to minimize repainting of menus.  This  is  typi-
               cally  used  with servers that can repaint faster than they can
               handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
               This variable indicates that case should be ignored when  sort-
               ing  icon  names  in an icon manager.  This option is typically
               used with applications that  capitalize  the  first  letter  of
               their icon name.

       NoDefaults
               This  variable indicates that twm should not supply the default
               titlebuttons and bindings.  This option should only be used  if
               the  startup file contains a completely new set of bindings and
               definitions.

       NoGrabServer
               This variable indicates that twm should  not  grab  the  server
               when popping up menus and moving opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This  variable indicates that borders should not be highlighted
               to track the location of the pointer.  If the optional win-list
               is given, highlighting will only be disabled for those windows.
               When the border is highlighted, it will be drawn in the current
               BorderColor.   When  the  border is not highlighted, it will be
               stippled with a gray pattern using the current  BorderTileFore-
               ground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconManagers
               This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoMenuShadows
               This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows
               drawn  behind them.  This is typically used with slower servers
               since it speeds up menu drawing at the expense  of  making  the
               menu slightly harder to read.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
               This  variable  indicates  that  windows  that  are deiconified
               should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised  when
               moved.  This is typically used to allow windows to slide under-
               neath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised  when
               resized.  This is typically used to allow windows to be resized
               underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised  when
               the pointer is warped into them with the f.warpto function.  If
               this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in
               the  pointer  ending  up  in  the  occluding window instead the
               desired  window  (which   causes   unexpected   behavior   with
               f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
               This  variable  indicates  that  menus should not request save-
               unders to minimize window repainting following menu  selection.
               It is typically used with displays that can repaint faster than
               they can handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that client window requests  to  change
               stacking  order should be ignored.  If the optional win-list is
               given, only requests on those windows will be ignored.  This is
               typically  used  to prevent applications from relentlessly pop-
               ping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.
               If  the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not
               have titlebars.  MakeTitle may be  used  with  this  option  to
               force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
               This  variable indicates that twm should not set keyboard input
               focus to each window as it is entered.  Normally, twm sets  the
               focus  so  that focus and key events from the titlebar and icon
               managers are delivered to the application.  If the  pointer  is
               moved quickly and twm is slow to respond, input can be directed
               to the old window instead of the new.  This option is typically
               used  to  prevent this ‘‘input lag’’ and to work around bugs in
               older applications that have problems with focus events.

       NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the highlight area of  the  title-
               bar,  which  is  used to indicate the window that currently has
               the input focus, should not be displayed.  If the optional win-
               list  is  given,  only  those  windows  will not have highlight
               areas.  This and the SqueezeTitle options can be  set  to  sub-
               stantially reduce the amount of screen space required by title-
               bars.

       OpaqueMove
               This variable indicates that the f.move function  should  actu-
               ally  move  the  window  instead of just an outline so that the
               user can immediately see what the window will look like in  the
               new  position.   This option is typically used on fast displays
               (particularly if NoGrabServer is set).

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
               This variable specifies a  list  of  pixmaps  that  define  the
               appearance of various images.  Each entry is a keyword indicat-
               ing the pixmap to set, followed by a string giving the name  of
               the bitmap file.  The following pixmaps may be specified:

                    Pixmaps
                    {
                         TitleHighlight "gray1"
                    }

               The  default  for TitleHighlight is to use an even stipple pat-
               tern.

       Priority priority
               This variable sets  twm’s  priority.   priority  should  be  an
               unquoted,  signed  number  (e.g.  999).   This  variable has an
               effect only if the server supports the SYNC extension.

       RandomPlacement
               This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
               should  be placed in a pseudo-random location instead of having
               the user drag out an outline.

       ResizeFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used for in  the  dimen-
               sions window when resizing windows.  The default is "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
               This  variable  indicates  that  twm  should attempt to use the
               WM_STATE property on  client  windows  to  tell  which  windows
               should  be iconified and which should be left visible.  This is
               typically used to try to regenerate the state that  the  screen
               was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
               This  variable  indicates  a  list  of  color assignments to be
               stored as pixel values in the root window property  _MIT_PRIOR-
               ITY_COLORS.   Clients  may  elect to preserve these values when
               installing their own colormap.  Note that use of this mechanism
               is a way an for application to avoid the "technicolor" problem,
               whereby useful screen objects such as window borders and title-
               bars  disappear  when a programs custom colors are installed by
               the window manager.  For example:

                    SaveColor
                    {
                            BorderColor
                            TitleBackground
                            TitleForeground
                            "red"
                            "green"
                            "blue"
                    }

               This would place on the root window 3 pixel values for  borders
               and  titlebars,  as  well as the three color strings, all taken
               from the default colormap.

       ShowIconManager
               This variable indicates that the icon manager window should  be
               displayed  when  twm  is  started.  It can always be brought up
               using the f.showiconmgr function.

       SortIconManager
               This variable indicates that entries in the icon manager should
               be  sorted  alphabetically  rather than by simply appending new
               windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
               This variable indicates that twm  should  attempt  to  use  the
               SHAPE  extension  to  make titlebars occupy only as much screen
               space as they need, rather than extending all  the  way  across
               the  top  of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may be used
               to control the location of the squeezed titlebar along the  top
               of the window.  It contains entries of the form:

                         "name"         justification  num  denom

               where name is a window name, justification is either left, cen-
               ter, or right, and num and denom are numbers specifying a ratio
               giving the relative position about which the titlebar is justi-
               fied.  The ratio is measured from left to right if the  numera-
               tor  is positive, and right to left if negative.  A denominator
               of 0 indicates that the numerator should be measured in pixels.
               For  convenience,  the  ratio 0/0 is the same as 1/2 for center
               and -1/1 for right.  For example:

                    SqueezeTitle
                    {
                         "XTerm"   left      0    0
                         "xterm1"  left      1    3
                         "xterm2"  left      2    3
                         "oclock"  center         0    0
                         "emacs"   right          0    0
                    }

               The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing  on
               certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
               left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user.  If the
               optional  win-list is given, only those windows will be started
               iconic.  This is useful for programs that  do  not  support  an
               -iconic command line option or resource.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars,
               and may only be specified  inside  of  a  Color,  Grayscale  or
               Monochrome  list.   The  optional  win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors  may  be  specified.
               The default is "white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
               This  variable specifies the width in pixels of the border sur-
               rounding titlebuttons.  This is typically set  to  0  to  allow
               titlebuttons  to  take  up as much space as possible and to not
               have a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used for displaying win-
               dow names in titlebars.  The default is "variable".

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars,
               and may only be specified  inside  of  a  Color,  Grayscale  or
               Monochrome  list.   The  optional  win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors  may  be  specified.
               The default is "black".

       TitlePadding pixels
               This  variable  specifies the distance between the various but-
               tons, text, and highlight areas in the titlebar.   The  default
               is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
               This  variable  specifies  the  filename of a bitmap file to be
               used as the default icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon
               of  all clients which do not provide an icon bitmap and are not
               listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
               This variable specifies whether or not twm  should  honor  pro-
               gram-requested  locations  (given  by the PPosition flag in the
               WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the absence  of  a  user-specified
               position.   The  argument  string may have one of three values:
               "off" (the default) indicating that twm should ignore the  pro-
               gram-supplied  position,  "on"  indicating  that  the  position
               should be used, and "non-zero"  indicating  that  the  position
               should  used  if  it is other than (0,0).  The latter option is
               for working around a bug in older toolkits.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the pointer should be warped  into
               windows when they are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is
               given, the pointer will only be warped when those  windows  are
               deiconified.

       WindowRing { win-list }
               This  variable  specifies  a  list  of  windows along which the
               f.warpring function cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
               This variable  indicates  that  the  f.warpto  function  should
               deiconify  any  iconified windows it encounters.  This is typi-
               cally used to make a key binding that  will  pop  a  particular
               window  (such  as  xmh), no matter where it is.  The default is
               for f.warpto to ignore iconified windows.

       XorValue number
               This variable specifies the value to use  when  drawing  window
               outlines  for  moving  and  resizing.   This should be set to a
               value that will result in a variety of of distinguishable  col-
               ors  when exclusive-or’ed with the contents of the user’s typi-
               cal screen.  Setting  this  variable  to  1  often  gives  nice
               results  if  adjacent  colors  in the default colormap are dis-
               tinct.  By default, twm will attempt to cause  temporary  lines
               to  appear  at the opposite end of the colormap from the graph-
               ics.

       Zoom [ count ]
               This variable indicates that outlines suggesting movement of  a
               window  to  and  from  its  iconified state should be displayed
               whenever a window is iconified or  deiconified.   The  optional
               count  argument  specifies  the number of outlines to be drawn.
               The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have been assigned,
       so it is usually best to put them at the end of the variables or begin-
       ning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to be executed when a  key
               or  button  event is received for which no binding is provided.
               This is typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu  containing
               window operations.

       WindowFunction function
               This  variable  specifies the function to execute when a window
               is selected from the TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is  not
               set, the window will be deiconified and raised.


BINDINGS

       After  the  desired  variables have been set, functions may be attached
       titlebuttons and key and pointer buttons.  Titlebuttons  may  be  added
       from  the  left  or right side and appear in the titlebar from left-to-
       right according to the order in which  they  are  specified.   Key  and
       pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons  specifications must include the name of the pixmap to use
       in the button box and the function to be invoked when a pointer  button
       is pressed within them:

            LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function

       or

            RightTitleButton "bitmapname" = function

       The  bitmapname  may  refer  to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be pressed, over which parts of the screen the  pointer  must  be,  and
       what  function  is to be invoked.  Keys are given as strings containing
       the appropriate keysym name; buttons are given  as  the  keywords  But-
       ton1-Button5:

            "FP1"          = modlist : context : function
            Button1   = modlist : context : function

       The  modlist  is  any combination of the modifier names shift, control,
       lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may  be  abbreviated
       as  s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively) separated by a verti-
       cal bar (|).  Similarly, the context  is  any  combination  of  window,
       title,  icon, root, frame, iconmgr, their first letters (iconmgr abbre-
       viation is m), or all, separated by a vertical bar.   The  function  is
       any  of  the  f.   keywords  described below.  For example, the default
       startup file contains the following bindings:

            Button1   =    : root         : f.menu "TwmWindows"
            Button1   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-lower"
            Button2   = m  : window | icon     : f.iconify
            Button3   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-raise"
            Button1   =    : title        : f.function "move-or-raise"
            Button2   =    : title        : f.raiselower
            Button1   =    : icon         : f.function "move-or-iconify"
            Button2   =    : icon         : f.iconify
            Button1   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
            Button2   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify

       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows  from  the  keyboard
       could use the following bindings:

            "F1" =    : all          : f.iconify
            "F2" =    : all          : f.raiselower
            "F3" =    : all          : f.warpring "next"
            "F4" =    : all          : f.warpto "xmh"
            "F5" =    : all          : f.warpto "emacs"
            "F6" =    : all          : f.colormap "next"
            "F7" =    : all          : f.colormap "default"
            "F20"     =    : all          : f.warptoscreen "next"
            "Left"    = m  : all          : f.backiconmgr
            "Right"   = m | s   : all          : f.forwiconmgr
            "Up" = m  : all          : f.upiconmgr
            "Down"    = m | s   : all          : f.downiconmgr

       Twm  provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be con-
       veniently stored in a titlebar, menu, or set of key bindings.  Although
       a  small  set of defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is speci-
       fied), most users will want to have their most common operations  bound
       to  key and button strokes.  To do this, twm associates names with each
       of the primitives and  provides  user-defined  functions  for  building
       higher  level  primitives  and  menus for interactively selecting among
       groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which they are referenced in
       calls  to  f.function  and  a  list of other functions to execute.  For
       example:

            Function "move-or-lower" { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
            Function "move-or-raise" { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
            Function "move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
            Function "restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }

       The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it  appears  in
       the function specification.

       In  the  descriptions  below, if the function is said to operate on the
       selected window, but is invoked from a root menu, the  cursor  will  be
       changed  to  the  Select cursor and the next window to receive a button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
               This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
               This function toggles whether or not  the  selected  window  is
               raised whenever entered by the pointer.  See the description of
               the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous column  in  the
               current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if nec-
               essary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
               This function  is  similar  to  the  f.fullzoom  function,  but
               resizes  the window to fill only the bottom half of the screen.

       f.circledown
               This function lowers the top-most window that occludes  another
               window.

       f.circleup
               This function raises the bottom-most window that is occluded by
               another window.

       f.colormap string
               This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the  WM_COL-
               ORMAP_WINDOWS  property  on  the  window) that twm will display
               when the pointer is in this window.  The  argument  string  may
               have   one   of  the  following  values:  "next",  "prev",  and
               "default".  It should  be  noted  here  that  in  general,  the
               installed  colormap is determined by keyboard focus.  A pointer
               driven keyboard focus will  install  a  private  colormap  upon
               entry  of  the  window owning the colormap.  Using the click to
               type model, private colormaps will not be installed  until  the
               user presses a mouse button on the target window.

       f.deiconify
               This  function  deiconifies the selected window.  If the window
               is not an icon, this function does nothing.

       f.delete
               This  function  sends  the  WM_DELETE_WINDOW  message  to   the
               selected  window  if  the  client  application has requested it
               through the WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  The  application  is
               supposed  to  respond  to the message by removing the indicated
               window.  If the window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW  mes-
               sages,  the keyboard bell will be rung indicating that the user
               should choose an alternative method.  Note this is very differ-
               ent from f.destroy.  The intent here is to delete a single win-
               dow,  not necessarily the entire application.

       f.deltastop
               This function allows a user-defined function to be  aborted  if
               the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the
               example definition given for Function  "move-or-raise"  at  the
               beginning of the section.

       f.destroy
               This  function instructs the X server to close the display con-
               nection of the client that created the selected  window.   This
               should  only be used as a last resort for shutting down runaway
               clients.  See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next row in the  current
               icon  manger,  wrapping  to the beginning of the next column if
               necessary.

       f.exec string
               This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for  execu-
               tion.   In  multiscreen  mode,  if string starts a new X client
               without giving a display argument, the client  will  appear  on
               the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This  function  toggles the keyboard focus of the server to the
               selected window, changing the focus rule from pointer-driven if
               necessary.   If  the  selected window already was focused, this
               function executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
               This function is like f.move except that it ignores  the  Dont-
               MoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
               This  function warps the pointer to the next column in the cur-
               rent icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next row if
               necessary.

       f.fullzoom
               This  function  resizes the selected window to the full size of
               the display or else restores the original size  if  the  window
               was already zoomed.

       f.function string
               This  function executes the user-defined function whose name is
               specified by the argument string.

       f.hbzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
               This function unmaps the current icon manager.

       f.horizoom
               This variable is similar to the f.zoom function except that the
               selected window is resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
               This  function  iconifies or deiconifies the selected window or
               icon, respectively.

       f.identify
               This function displays a summary of the name  and  geometry  of
               the  selected  window.   If the server supports the SYNC exten-
               sion, the priority of the client owning the window is also dis-
               played.   Clicking  the pointer or pressing a key in the window
               will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
               This function similar to  f.backiconmgr  except  that  wrapping
               does not change rows.

       f.leftzoom
               This  variable  is  similar  to  the  f.bottomzoom function but
               causes the selected window is only resized to the left half  of
               the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the selected window.

       f.menu string
               This  function  invokes  the  menu  specified  by  the argument
               string.  Cascaded menus  may  be  built  by  nesting  calls  to
               f.menu.

       f.move  This  function  drags an outline of the selected window (or the
               window itself if the OpaqueMove  variable  is  set)  until  the
               invoking  pointer  button  is released.  Double clicking within
               the number of milliseconds given by  ConstrainedMoveTime  warps
               the pointer to the center of the window and constrains the move
               to be either horizontal or vertical  depending  on  which  grid
               line  is crossed.  To abort a move, press another button before
               releasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next icon  manager  con-
               taining any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This  function  does  nothing  and  is  typically used with the
               DefaultFunction or WindowFunction  variables  or  to  introduce
               blank lines in menus.

       f.previconmgr
               This  function  warps  the pointer to the previous icon manager
               containing any windows on the current or preceding screens.

       f.priority string
               This function sets  the  priority  of  the  client  owning  the
               selected  window  to  the numeric value of the argument string,
               which should be a signed integer in double quotes  (e.g.  "999"
               ).  This function has an effect only if the server supports the
               SYNC extension.

       f.quit  This function causes twm to restore the  window’s  borders  and
               exit.   If  twm is the first client invoked from xdm, this will
               result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the selected window.

       f.raiselower
               This function raises the selected window  to  the  top  of  the
               stacking  order if it is occluded by any windows, otherwise the
               window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
               This function causes all windows to be refreshed.

       f.resize
               This function displays  an  outline  of  the  selected  window.
               Crossing  a  border  (or setting AutoRelativeResize) will cause
               the outline to begin to rubber band until the  invoking  button
               is  released.   To  abort a resize, press another button before
               releasing the first button.

       f.restart
               This function kills and restarts twm.

       f.startwm string
               This function kills twm and starts another window  manager,  as
               specified by string.

       f.righticonmgr
               This  function is similar to f.nexticonmgr except that wrapping
               does not change rows.

       f.rightzoom
               This variable is similar to the  f.bottomzoom  function  except
               that  the  selected window is only resized to the right half of
               the display.

       f.saveyourself
               This function sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to  the  selected
               window if it has requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS win-
               dow property.  Clients that accept this message are supposed to
               checkpoint  all state associated with the window and update the
               WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM.  If the selected
               window  has  not  selected  for this message, the keyboard bell
               will be rung.

       f.showiconmgr
               This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
               This function sorts the entries in  the  current  icon  manager
               alphabetically.  See the variable SortIconManager.

       f.title This  function provides a centered, unselectable item in a menu
               definition.  It should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
               This variable is similar to the  f.bottomzoom  function  except
               that the selected window is only resized to the top half of the
               display.

       f.unfocus
               This function resets the focus back  to  pointer-driven.   This
               should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the cur-
               rent icon manager, wrapping to the last row in the same  column
               if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warpring string
               This  function warps the pointer to the next or previous window
               (as indicated by the argument string, which may  be  "next"  or
               "prev") specified in the WindowRing variable.

       f.warpto string
               This  function warps the pointer to the window which has a name
               or class that matches string.  If the window is  iconified,  it
               will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped is set or else
               ignored.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
               This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry asso-
               ciated  with the window containing the pointer in the icon man-
               ager specified by the argument  string.   If  string  is  empty
               (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
               This  function warps the pointer to the screen specified by the
               argument string.  String may be a number (e.g. "0" or "1"), the
               word  "next"  (indicating  the  current screen plus 1, skipping
               over any unmanaged screens), the word  "back"  (indicating  the
               current  screen  minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens),
               or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
               This function is similar to the f.refresh function except  that
               only the selected window is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This  function  is  similar  to the f.fullzoom function, except
               that the only the height of the selected window is changed.


MENUS

       Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up  (when
       bound  to a pointer button) or pull-down (when associated with a title-
       button) menus.  Each menu specification contains the name of  the  menu
       as  it  will  be referred to by f.menu, optional default foreground and
       background colors, the list of item names and the functions they should
       invoke,  and  optional  foreground and background colors for individual
       items:

            Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
            {
                 string1   [ ("fore1":"backn")]     function1
                 string2   [ ("fore2":"backn")]     function2
                      .
                      .
                      .
                 stringN   [ ("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
            }


       The menuname is case-sensitive.  The optional deffore and defback argu-
       ments specify the foreground and background colors used on a color dis-
       play to highlight menu entries.  The string portion of each menu  entry
       will  be the text which will appear in the menu.  The optional fore and
       back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry  when the pointer is not in the entry.  These colors will only be
       used on a color display.  The default is to use the colors specified by
       the  MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables.  The function portion
       of the menu entry is one of the functions, including  any  user-defined
       functions, or additional menus.

       There  is  a  special menu named TwmWindows which contains the names of
       all of the client and twm-supplied windows.  Selecting  an  entry  will
       cause the WindowFunction to be executed on that window.  If WindowFunc-
       tion hasn’t been set, the window will be deiconified and raised.


ICONS

       Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified  windows.
       The  common  pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or automati-
       cally arranged as described by the IconRegion variable.  In addition, a
       terse grid of icon names, called an icon manager, provides a more effi-
       cient use of screen space as well as  the  ability  to  navigate  among
       windows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected or all win-
       dows currently on the display.  In addition to the window name, a small
       button  using  the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the left
       of the name when the window is iconified.  By default, clicking  on  an
       entry  in  the  icon manager performs f.iconify.  To change the actions
       taken in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when  specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon manager also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending syn-
       thetic events NoTitleFocus is set).  Using the f.upiconmgr, f.downicon-
       mgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions, the input focus can be
       changed between windows directly from the keyboard.


BUGS

       The resource manager should have been used instead of all of the window
       lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double clicking very fast to get the  constrained  move  function  will
       sometimes  cause  the  window  to  move, even though the pointer is not
       moved.

       If IconifyByUnmapping is on and  windows  are  listed  in  IconManager-
       DontShow  but  not  in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost if they
       are iconified and no bindings to f.menu "TwmWindows"  or  f.warpto  are
       setup.


FILES

       $HOME/.twmrc.<screen number>
       $HOME/.twmrc
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       DISPLAY This  variable  is used to determine which X server to use.  It
               is also set during f.exec so  that  programs  come  up  on  the
               proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is used as the prefix for files that begin with a
               tilde and for locating the twm startup file.


SEE ALSO

       X(7x), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)


AUTHORS

       Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium;  Steve
       Pitschke,  Stardent  Computer;  Keith  Packard,  MIT X Consortium; Dave
       Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer.



                                                                        TWM(1)

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