XEMACS(1)                                                            XEMACS(1)


       xemacs - Emacs: The Next Generation


       xemacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]


       XEmacs  is  a  version  of  Emacs,  compatible with and containing many
       improvements over GNU Emacs, written by Richard Stallman  of  the  Free
       Software  Foundation.   It  was originally based on an early release of
       GNU Emacs Version 19, and has tracked subsequent releases of GNU  Emacs
       as they have become available.

       The  primary documentation of XEmacs is in the XEmacs Reference Manual,
       which you can read on-line using Info, a subsystem of  XEmacs.   Please
       look  there  for complete and up-to-date documentation.  Complete docu-
       mentation on using Emacs Lisp is available on-line through  the  XEmacs
       Lisp  Programmer’s Manual.  Both manuals also can be printed out nicely
       using the TeX formatting package.

       The user functionality of XEmacs  encompasses  everything  other  Emacs
       editors  do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands are
       written in Lisp.

       XEmacs has an extensive interactive help  facility,  but  the  facility
       assumes  that  you  know  how to manipulate XEmacs windows and buffers.
       CTRL-h enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) requests  an
       interactive  tutorial  which  can  teach  beginners the fundamentals of
       XEmacs in a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a com-
       mand  given  its functionality, Help Key Binding (CTRL-h k) describes a
       given key sequence’s effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)  describes  a
       given  Lisp  function  specified  by  name.   You  can also look up key
       sequences in the XEmacs  Reference  Manual  using  Lookup  Key  Binding
       (CTRL-h CTRL-k), and look up Lisp functions in the XEmacs Lisp Program-
       mer’s Manual using Lookup Function (CTRL-h CTRL-f).  All of these  help
       functions,  and more, are available on the Help menu if you are using a
       window system.

       XEmacs has extensive GUI (graphical user interface) support  when  run-
       ning  under  a window system such as X, including multiple frames (top-
       level windows), a menubar, a toolbar, horizontal and  vertical  scroll-
       bars, dialog boxes, and extensive mouse support.

       XEmacs  has  full support for multiple fonts and colors, variable-width
       fonts, and variable-height lines, and allows for pixmaps to be inserted
       into a buffer. (This is used in the W3 web-browsing package and in some
       of the debugger and outlining interfaces, among other things.)

       XEmacs’s Undo can undo several steps of modification to  your  buffers,
       so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       XEmacs’s many special packages handle mail reading (VM, MH-E and RMail)
       and sending (Mail), Usenet news reading and posting (GNUS), World  Wide
       Web  browsing  (W3),  specialized  modes for editing source code in all
       common programming languages, syntax highlighting  for  many  languages
       (Font-Lock),  compiling (Compile), running subshells within XEmacs win-
       dows (Shell), outline editing (Outline), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There  is  an  extensive  reference  manual, but users of other Emacsen
       should have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new  to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       XEmacs Options

       XEmacs accepts all standard X Toolkit command line options when run  in
       an  X  Windows  environment.   In  addition,  the following options are
       accepted (when options imply a sequence of actions to perform, they are
       performed in the order encountered):

       -t file Use  specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/std-
               out.  This implies -nw.

       -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages  to  stdout.
               You  must use the -l, -f, and -eval options to specify files to
               execute and functions to call.

       -nw     Inhibit the use of any window-system-specific display code: use
               the current TTY.

               Enter the debugger if an error occurs loading the init file.

               Do not map the initial frame.

               Do not load the site-specific init file (site-start.el).

       -q, -no-init-file
               Do not load an init file.

               Do not process the early packages.

               Load  no extra files at startup.  Equivalent to the combination
               of -q , -no-site-file , and -no-early-packages

       -u user, -user user
               Load user’s init file.

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go to the line specified by  number  (do  not  insert  a  space
               between the "+" sign and the number).

       -help   Print a help message and exit.

       -V, -version,
               Print the version number and exit.

       -f function, -funcall function
               Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file, -load file
               Load the Lisp code in the file file.

       -eval form
               Evaluate the Lisp form form.

       -i file, -insert file
               Insert file into the current buffer.

       -kill   Exit XEmacs (useful with -batch).

       Using XEmacs with X Windows

       XEmacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If you
       run XEmacs from under X windows, it will create its  own  X  window  to
       display in.

       XEmacs can be started with the following standard X options:

       -visual <visualname><bitdepth>
              Select the visual that XEmacs will attempt to use.  <visualname>
              should  be  one  of  the  strings  "StaticColor",   "TrueColor",
              "GrayScale",  "PseudoColor"  or  "DirectColor",  and  <bitdepth>
              should be the number of bits per pixel (example, "-visual  True-
              Color24"  for a 24bit TrueColor visual) See X(1) for more infor-

              Require XEmacs to create and use a private colormap for display.
              This  will  keep XEmacs from taking colors from the default col-
              ormap and keeping them from other clients, at the cost of  caus-
              ing  annoying  flicker  when the focus changes.  Use this option
              only if your X server does not support 24 bit visuals.

       -geometry ##x##+##+##
              Specify the geometry of the initial window.  The ##’s  represent
              a number; the four numbers are width (characters), height (char-
              acters), X offset (pixels), and Y offset (pixels), respectively.
              Partial  specifications  of  the  form  ##x## or +##+## are also
              allowed. (The geometry specification is in the standard  X  for-
              mat; see X(1) for more information.)

              Specifies that the initial window should initially appear iconi-

       -name name
               Specifies the program name which should be used when looking up
               defaults in the user’s X resources.

       -title title, -T title, -wn title
               Specifies the title which should be assigned to the XEmacs win-

       -d displayname, -display displayname
               Create the XEmacs window on the display specified  by  display-
               name.   Must be the first option specified in the command line.

       -font font, -fn font
               Set the XEmacs window’s font to that specified  by  font.   You
               will  find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts direc-
               tory.  XEmacs works with either fixed- or variable-width fonts,
               but will probably look better with a fixed-width font.

       -scrollbar-width pixels
               Specify the width of the vertical scrollbars.

       -scrollbar-height pixels
               Specify the height of the horizontal scrollbars.

       -bw pixels, -borderwidth pixels
               Set  the  XEmacs  window’s border width to the number of pixels
               specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the

       -ib pixels, -internal-border-width pixels
               Specify  the  width  between  a frame’s border and its text, in
               pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Sets the color of the text.

               See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a  list  of  valid  color

       -bg color, -background color
               Sets the color of the window’s background.

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Sets the color of the window’s border.

       -mc color
               Sets the color of the mouse pointer.

       -cr color
               Sets the color of the text cursor.

       -rv, -reverse
               Reverses  the foreground and background colors (reverse video).
               Consider explicitly setting the foreground and background  col-
               ors instead of using this option.

       -xrm argument
               This  allows  you  to  set an arbitrary resource on the command
               line.  argument should be a resource specification, as might be
               found in your .Xresources or .Xdefaults file.

       You  can  also  set  resources, i.e.  X default values, for your XEmacs
       windows in your .Xresources or .Xdefaults file (see xrdb(1)).  Use  the
       following format:




       where  value  specifies  the default value of keyword.  (Some resources
       need the former format; some the latter.)

       You can also set resources for a particular frame by using the format


       where framename is the resource name assigned to that particular frame.
       (Certain packages, such as VM, give their frames unique resource names,
       in this case "VM".)

       XEmacs lets you set default values for the following keywords:

       default.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
               Sets the window’s text font.

       default.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
               Sets the window’s text color.

       default.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
               Sets the window’s background color.

       face.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
               Sets the font for face, which should be the  name  of  a  face.
               Common face names are

               FACE            PURPOSE
               default         Normal text.
               bold            Bold text.
               italic          Italicized text.
               bold-italic     Bold and italicized text.
               modeline        Modeline text.
               zmacs-region    Text selected with the mouse.
               highlight       Text highlighted when the mouse passes over.
               left-margin     Text in the left margin.
               right-margin    Text in the right margin.
               isearch         Text highlighted during incremental search.
               info-node       Text of Info menu items.
               info-xref       Text of Info cross references.

       face.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
               Sets the foreground color for face.

       face.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
               Sets the background color for face.

       face.attributeBackgroundPixmap (class Face.AttributeBackgroundPixmap)
               Sets the background pixmap (stipple) for face.

       face.attributeUnderline (class Face.AttributeUnderline)
               Whether face should be underlined.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
               If  set  to  on, the window will be displayed in reverse video.
               Consider explicitly setting the foreground and background  col-
               ors instead of using this resource.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window’s border width in pixels.

       internalBorderWidth (class InternalBorderWidth)
               Sets the window’s internal border width in pixels.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               Sets the color of the window’s border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
               Sets the color of the window’s text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               Sets the color of the window’s mouse cursor.

       emacsVisual (class EmacsVisual)
               Sets  the  default  visual XEmacs will try to use (as described

       privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
               If set, XEmacs will default to using a private colormap.

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Sets the geometry of the XEmacs window (as described above).

       iconic (class Iconic)
               If set to on, the XEmacs window will  initially  appear  as  an

       menubar (class Menubar)
               Whether  the  XEmacs  window  will have a menubar.  Defaults to

       initiallyUnmapped (class InitiallyUnmapped)
               Whether XEmacs will leave the initial frame  unmapped  when  it
               starts up.

       barCursor (class BarCursor)
               Whether  the  cursor should be a bar instead of the traditional

       title (class Title)
               Sets the title of the XEmacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
               Sets the icon name for the XEmacs window icon.

       scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
               Sets the width of the vertical scrollbars, in pixels.  A  width
               of 0 means no vertical scrollbars.

       scrollBarHeight (class ScrollBarHeight)
               Sets  the  height  of  the horizontal scrollbars, in pixels.  A
               height of 0 means no horizontal scrollbars.

       scrollBarPlacement (class ScrollBarPlacement)
               Sets  the  position  of  vertical  and  horizontal  scrollbars.
               Should  be  one of the strings "top-left", "bottom-left", "top-
               right", or "bottom-right".  The default is  "bottom-right"  for
               the Motif and Lucid scrollbars and "bottom-left" for the Athena

       topToolBarHeight (class TopToolBarHeight)
               Sets the height of the top toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no  top

       bottomToolBarHeight (class BottomToolBarHeight)
               Sets  the  height of the bottom toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no
               bottom toolbar.

       leftToolBarWidth (class LeftToolBarWidth)
               Sets the width of the left toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no left

       rightToolBarWidth (class RightToolBarWidth)
               Sets  the  width  of  the right toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no
               right toolbar.

       topToolBarShadowColor (class TopToolBarShadowColor)
               Sets the color of the top shadows for the  toolbars.  (For  all
               toolbars, not just the toolbar at the top of the frame.)

       bottomToolBarShadowColor (class BottomToolBarShadowColor)
               Sets the color of the bottom shadows for the toolbars. (For all
               toolbars, not just the toolbar at the bottom of the frame.)

       topToolBarShadowPixmap (class TopToolBarShadowPixmap)
               Sets the pixmap of the top shadows for the toolbars.  (For  all
               toolbars,  not  just  the  toolbar at the top of the frame.) If
               set, this resource overrides the corresponding color  resource.

       bottomToolBarShadowPixmap (class BottomToolBarShadowPixmap)
               Sets  the  pixmap  of the bottom shadows for the toolbars. (For
               all toolbars, not just the toolbar at the bottom of the frame.)
               If   set,  this  resource  overrides  the  corresponding  color

       toolBarShadowThickness (class ToolBarShadowThickness)
               Thickness of the shadows around the toolbars, in pixels.

       visualBell (class VisualBell)
               Whether XEmacs should flash the screen rather  than  making  an
               audible beep.

       bellVolume (class BellVolume)
               Volume of the audible beep.  Range is 0 through 100.

       useBackingStore (class UseBackingStore)
               Whether  XEmacs should set the backing-store attribute of the X
               windows it creates.  This increases the memory usage of  the  X
               server  but  decreases  the  amount  of  X traffic necessary to
               update the screen, and is useful when the connection to  the  X
               server  goes  over a low-bandwidth line such as a modem connec-

       textPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over text.

       selectionPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is  over  a  mouse-highlighted
               text region.

       spacePointer (class Cursor)
               The  cursor  to  use  when the mouse is over a blank space in a
               buffer (that is, after the end of a line or after  the  end-of-

       modeLinePointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over a mode line.

       gcPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to display when a garbage-collection is in progress.

       scrollbarPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over the scrollbar.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               The foreground color of the mouse cursor.

       pointerBackground (class Background)
               The background color of the mouse cursor.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the mouse button bindings  for  the  XEmacs  window
       under X11.

       left                 Set point or make a text selection.
       middle               Paste text.
       right                Pop up a menu of options.
       SHIFT-left           Extend a selection.
       CTRL-left            Make a selection and insert it at point.
       CTRL-middle          Set point and move selected text there.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left      Make  a  selection,  delete  it,  and insert it at
       META-left            Make a rectangular selection.


       Lisp code is read at startup from the user’s init file, $HOME/.emacs.

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem
       of XEmacs) to refer to.  The complete text of the XEmacs Reference Man-
       ual and the XEmacs Lisp Programmer’s Manual is included in a convenient
       tree structured form.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/info  -  the  Info  files  may  be  here

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/lisp/* - Lisp source files and  compiled
       files  that  define  most editing commands.  The files are contained in
       subdirectories, categorized by function or  individual  package.   Some
       are  preloaded; others are autoloaded from these directories when used.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc - some files of information,  pixmap
       files, other data files used by certain packages, etc.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION  -  various programs that
       are used with XEmacs.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION/DOC - contains the  docu-
       mentation  strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions
       of XEmacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of XEmacs proper.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs/site-lisp - locally-provided Lisp files.


       There is a newsgroup, comp.emacs.xemacs, for reporting XEmacs bugs  and
       fixes  and  requesting  help.  But before reporting something as a bug,
       please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not  a  misunderstanding
       or  a  deliberate  feature.  We ask you to read the section ‘‘Reporting
       XEmacs Bugs’’ near the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for
       hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number
       of the XEmacs you are running and the system you are running it  on  in
       every  bug  report that you send in.  Finally, the more you can isolate
       the cause of a bug and the conditions it happens under, the more likely
       it is to be fixed, so please take the time to do so.

       The newsgroup is bidirectionally gatewayed to and from the mailing list
       xemacs@xemacs.org.  You can read the list instead of the  newsgroup  if
       you  do not have convenient Usenet news access.  To request to be added
       to the mailing list, send mail to  xemacs-request@xemacs.org.  (Do  not
       send mail to the list itself.)

       The XEmacs maintainers read the newsgroup regularly and will attempt to
       fix bugs reported in a timely fashion.  However, not every message will
       get  a  response from one of the maintainers.  Note that there are many
       people other than the maintainers who read the newsgroup, and will usu-
       ally be of assistance in helping with any problems encountered.

       If  you need more personal assistance than can be provided by the news-
       group, look in the SERVICE file (see above) for a list  of  people  who
       offer it.

       For   more  information  about  XEmacs  mailing  lists,  see  the  file


       XEmacs is free; anyone may redistribute  copies  of  XEmacs  to  anyone
       under  the terms stated in the XEmacs General Public License, a copy of
       which accompanies each copy of XEmacs and which  also  appears  in  the
       reference manual.

       Copies  of XEmacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions
       of Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of  any  license
       covering  those  systems.   Such  inclusion violates the terms on which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public  License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restric-
       tions to redistribution of XEmacs.


       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1), emacs(1), vi(1)


       XEmacs was written by Steve Baur  <steve@xemacs.org>,  Martin  Buchholz
       <martin@xemacs.org>,   Richard  Mlynarik  <mly@adoc.xerox.com>,  Hrvoje
       Niksic <hniksic@xemacs.org>, Chuck  Thompson  <cthomp@xemacs.org>,  Ben
       Wing  <ben@xemacs.org>,  Jamie Zawinski <jwz@jwz.org>, and many others.
       It was based on an early version of GNU Emacs Version  19,  written  by
       Richard Stallman <rms@gnu.org> of the Free Software Foundation, and has
       tracked subsequent releases of GNU Emacs as they have become available.
       It  was originally written by Lucid, Inc.  (now defunct) and was called
       Lucid Emacs.

       Chuck Thompson wrote the XEmacs redisplay engine, maintains the  XEmacs
       FTP  and  WWW sites, and has put out all releases of XEmacs since 19.11
       (the first release called XEmacs).  Ben Wing wrote  the  Asian-language
       support, the on-line documentation (including this man page and much of
       the FAQ), the external widget code, and retooled or rewrote most of the
       basic,  low-level  XEmacs  subsystems.   Jamie  Zawinski  put  out  all
       releases of Lucid  Emacs,  from  the  first  (19.0)  through  the  last
       (19.10),  and  was  the  primary  code  contributor  for  all  of these
       releases.  Richard Mlynarik rewrote the XEmacs  Lisp-object  allocation
       system,  improved  the  keymap and minibuffer code, and did the initial
       synching of XEmacs with GNU Emacs Version 19.

       Many others have also contributed  significantly.   For  more  detailed
       information,  including  a  long  history of XEmacs from multiple view-
       points and pretty pictures and bios of the major  XEmacs  contributors,
       see the XEmacs About Page (the About XEmacs option on the Help menu).


       For more information about XEmacs, see the XEmacs About Page (mentioned
       above), look in the  file  /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc/NEWS,  or
       point your Web browser at


       for up-to-the-minute information about XEmacs.

       The  XEmacs  FAQ  (Frequently  Asked Questions) can be found at the Web
       site just listed.  A possibly out-of-date version  is  also  accessible
       through the Info system inside of XEmacs.

       The latest version of XEmacs can be downloaded using anonymous FTP from


       or from a mirror site near you.  Mirror sites are listed  in  the  file
       etc/FTP  in  the  XEmacs distribution or see the Web site for an up-to-
       date list of mirror sites.

4th Berkeley Distribution         2000-09-20                         XEMACS(1)

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