zshbuiltins



ZSHBUILTINS(1)                                                  ZSHBUILTINS(1)




NAME

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands


SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       - simple command
              See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read  commands  from  file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS  is  set,  the
              shell  looks  in  the  components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory  are  not  read
              unless  ‘.’  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              ‘file.zwc’ is found, is newer than file,  and  is  the  compiled
              form  (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg  are  given,  they  become  the  positional
              parameters;  the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  The exit status is the exit  status  of
              the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit code is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word  to
              be  checked  for  alias  expansion.   If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if  they
              do not occur in command position.

              If  the  -s flags is present, define a suffix alias: if the com-
              mand word on a command line is in the  form  ‘text.name’,  where
              text  is any non-empty string, it is replaced by the text ‘value
              text.name’.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
              a  pattern.   A  trailing  space in value is not special in this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will cause the command ‘*.ps’ to be expanded to ‘gv  *.ps’.   As
              alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the ‘*.ps’
              will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases  constitute  a  different
              name  space  from  other  aliases (so in the above example it is
              still possible to create an alias for the command  ps)  and  the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For  each  name  with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all  currently  defined  aliases  other
              than  suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are
              taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve  them  from
              being  interpreted  as  glob patterns), and the aliases matching
              these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases  and  one  of
              the  -g,  -r  or  -s  flags is present, restrict the printing to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using ‘+’
              instead of ‘-’, or ending the option list  with  a  single  ‘+’,
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If  the  -L  flag  is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The  exit  status  is
              nonzero  if  a  name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

       autoload [ {+|-}UXktz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and  -w.

              The  flag  -X  may be used only inside a shell function, and may
              not be followed by a name.  It causes the calling function to be
              marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with the current array of positional  parameters  as  arguments.
              This  replaces  the  previous definition of the function.  If no
              function definition is found, an error is printed and the  func-
              tion remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts to load each name as an autoloaded func-
              tion, but does not execute it.  The exit status  is  zero  (suc-
              cess)  if  the function was not previously defined and a defini-
              tion for it was found.  This does not replace any existing defi-
              nition of the function.  The exit status is nonzero (failure) if
              the function was already  defined  or  when  no  definition  was
              found.   In  the  latter case the function remains undefined and
              marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style  autoloading  is  enabled,
              the  function created will contain the contents of the file plus
              a call to the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal
              ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the function.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put  each specified job in the background, or the current job if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -sLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -sLP ] old new
       cd [ -sLP ] {+|-}n
              Change  the  current  directory.   In the first form, change the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.   If  arg is ‘-’, change to the value of $OLDPWD, the
              previous directory.  Otherwise, if a directory named arg is  not
              found  in  the  current  directory and arg does not begin with a
              slash, search each component of the shell parameter cdpath.   If
              no  directory  is found and the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
              parameter named arg exists whose  value  begins  with  a  slash,
              treat  its  value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the  string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and  changes  to  that  directory.  An argument of the form ‘+n’
              identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of  the  list
              shown  by  the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of
              the form ‘-n’ counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS  option
              is set, the meanings of ‘+’ and ‘-’ in this context are swapped.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the  current
              directory  if  the  given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are  resolved  to  their true values.  If the -L option is given
              symbolic links are followed  regardless  of  the  state  of  the
              CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section ‘The zsh/clone Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command  argument  is  taken as an external command
              instead of a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed.  If  the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain special properties of them are suppressed. The  -p  flag
              causes  a  default path to be searched instead of that in $path.
              With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with  -V,  it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       comparguments
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section ‘The zsh/compctl Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section ‘The zsh/computil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the  next  iteration of the enclosing for, while, until,
              select or repeat loop.  If n is  specified,  break  out  of  n-1
              loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With  no  arguments,  print the contents of the directory stack.
              Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command,  and
              removed  with  the cd or popd commands.  If arguments are speci-
              fied, load them onto the  directory  stack,  replacing  anything
              that was there, and push the current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions.

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.


       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements.  The  default
              is  to  disable  builtin  commands.   This  allows you to use an
              external command with the same name as a builtin  command.   The
              -a  option  causes  disable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.   The  -f
              option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r options
              causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments  all
              disabled  hash  table elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken  as  pat-
              terns  (which  should  be quoted to prevent them from undergoing
              filename expansion), and all hash table elements from the corre-
              sponding  hash table matching these patterns are disabled.  Dis-
              abled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will  no
              longer  report their status, and will not complain if you try to
              exit an interactive shell with them running or stopped.   If  no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If  the  jobs are currently stopped and the AUTO_CONTINUE option
              is not set, a warning is printed  containing  information  about
              how  to make them running after they have been disowned.  If one
              of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically  be
              made  running,  independent  of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a  space  separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The -E flag, or the BSD_ECHO option,  can  be  used  to  disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

       echotc See the section ‘The zsh/termcap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section ‘The zsh/terminfo Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] {zsh|sh|ksh|csh}
              Set up zsh options to emulate the specified  shell  as  much  as
              possible.  csh will never be fully emulated.  If the argument is
              not one of the shells listed  above,  zsh  will  be  used  as  a
              default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are
              the same as those used to determine  the  emulation  at  startup
              based on the shell name, see the section ‘Compatibility’ in zsh-
              misc(1) .  If the -R option is given, all options are  reset  to
              their  default  value  corresponding  to the specified emulation
              mode, except for  certain  options  describing  the  interactive
              environment;  otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to cause
              portability problems in scripts and functions are  altered.   If
              the   -L   option   is  given,  the  options  LOCAL_OPTIONS  and
              LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the effects of the emu-
              late command and any setopt and trap commands to be local to the
              immediately surrounding shell function, if any;  normally  these
              options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named hash table elements, presumably disabled ear-
              lier with disable.  The default is to enable  builtin  commands.
              The -a option causes enable to act on regular or global aliases.
              The -s option causes enable to act on suffix  aliases.   The  -f
              option  causes  enable to act on shell functions.  The -r option
              causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without  arguments  all
              enabled  hash  table  elements from the corresponding hash table
              are printed.  With the -m flag the arguments are taken  as  pat-
              terns  (should  be  quoted) and all hash table elements from the
              corresponding hash table matching these  patterns  are  enabled.
              Enabled  objects  can  be disabled with the disable builtin com-
              mand.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the result-
              ing command in the current shell process.

       exec simple command
              See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit  the  shell  with  the exit code specified by n; if none is
              specified, use the exit code from the last command executed.  An
              EOF  condition  will  also  cause  the shell to exit, unless the
              IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the envi-
              ronment  of subsequently executed commands.  Equivalent to type-
              set -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist, it is
              created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit code of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -nlrdDfEim ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select  a  range of commands from first to last from the history
              list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as a number
              or  as  a string.  A negative number is used as an offset to the
              current history event  number.   A  string  specifies  the  most
              recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions
              old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If the -l flag is given, the resulting commands  are  listed  on
              standard  output.   If the -m flag is also given the first argu-
              ment is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the  his-
              tory  events matching this pattern will be shown.  Otherwise the
              editor program ename is invoked on a file containing these  his-
              tory  events.  If ename is not given, the value of the parameter
              FCEDIT is used.  If ename is ‘-’, no editor  is  invoked.   When
              editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag is given.  If last is not spec-
              ified,  it  will  be  set  to  first, or to -1 if the -l flag is
              given.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the  flag  -n
              suppresses  command numbers when listing.  Also when listing, -d
              prints timestamps for each command, and -f prints full time-date
              stamps.   Adding  the  -E flag causes the dates to be printed as
              ‘dd.mm.yyyy’, instead of the default ‘mm/dd/yyyy’.   Adding  the
              -i  flag  causes the dates to be printed in ISO8601 ‘yyyy-mm-dd’
              format.  With the -D flag, fc prints elapsed times.


              ‘fc -p’ pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a  stack  and
              switches to a new history list.  If the -a option is also speci-
              fied, this history list will be automatically  popped  when  the
              current  function  scope is exited, which is a much better solu-
              tion than creating a trap function to call ‘fc -P’ manually.  If
              no  arguments  are  specified,  the  history list is left empty,
              $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set  to  their
              default  values.   If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is set to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history  file  is  read  in (if it exists) to initialize the new
              list.  If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE &  $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value  from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment
              values for the new history list however you desire in  order  to
              manipulate the new history list.

              ‘fc -P’ pops the history list back to an older list saved by ‘fc
              -p’.  The current list is saved to its $HISTFILE  before  it  is
              destroyed  (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST are set appro-
              priately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE,  $HISTSIZE,  and
              $SAVEHIST  are  restored to the values they had when ‘fc -p’ was
              called.  Note that this restoration  can  conflict  with  making
              these variables "local", so your best bet is to avoid local dec-
              larations for these variables in functions  that  use  ‘fc  -p’.
              The  one  other  guaranteed-safe  combination is declaring these
              variables to be local at the top of your function and using  the
              automatic  option  (-a)  with ‘fc -p’.  Finally, note that it is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              ‘fc  -R’  reads  the history from the given file, ‘fc -W’ writes
              the history out to the given file, and ‘fc -A’ appends the  his-
              tory  out  to  the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is  added  to  -R,  only
              those  events that are not already contained within the internal
              history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or  -W,
              only   those   events   that  are  new  since  last  incremental
              append/write to the history file are appended/written.   In  any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If  no  job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -E,  except  that options irrelevant to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtuz ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -f.

       getcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins  with
              a  ‘+’ or a ‘-’.  An argument not beginning with a ‘+’ or a ‘-’,
              or the argument ‘--’, ends the options.  Note that a single  ‘-’
              is  not  considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a ‘:’, that option is expected to have an argument.  The options
              can be separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places  the  option  letter  it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a ‘+’ when arg
              begins with a ‘+’.  The index of  the  next  arg  is  stored  in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first  option  to  be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1,  and  is
              normally  reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG is
              not reset and retains its value from the  most  recent  call  to
              getopts.   If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it
              remains unset, and the index or option argument is  not  stored.
              The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading ‘:’ in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set  name  to  ‘?’  for  an
              unknown  option  and  to  ‘:’ when a required option is missing.
              Otherwise, getopts sets name to ‘?’ and prints an error  message
              when  an  option  is  invalid.   The exit status is nonzero when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the  command
              hash  table,  and  the named directory hash table.  Normally one
              would modify these tables by modifying one’s PATH (for the  com-
              mand  hash  table)  or  by creating appropriate shell parameters
              (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash  table
              to  work  on  is determined by the -d option; without the option
              the command hash table is used, and with the  option  the  named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given  no  arguments,  and  neither  the  -r  or -f options, the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.   It
              will  be  subsequently  rebuilt  in  the normal fashion.  The -f
              option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt  imme-
              diately.   For  the command hash table this hashes all the abso-
              lute directories in the PATH, and for the named  directory  hash
              table  this adds all users’ home directories.  These two options
              cannot be used with any arguments.

              The -m option causes the  arguments  to  be  taken  as  patterns
              (which  should  be  quoted)  and  the elements of the hash table
              matching those patterns are printed.  This is the  only  way  to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For  each  name  with  a  corresponding value, put ‘name’ in the
              selected hash table, associating it with the  pathname  ‘value’.
              In  the  command  hash table, this means that whenever ‘name’ is
              used as a command argument, the shell will try  to  execute  the
              file  given by ‘value’.  In the named directory hash table, this
              means that ‘value’ may be referred to as ‘~name’.

              For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to  add  name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal manner for that hash  table.   If  an  appropriate  value
              can’t be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used  with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists  information  about  each given job, or all jobs if job is
              omitted.  The -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p  flag  lists
              process  groups.   If the -r flag is specified only running jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.   If  the  -d flag is given, the directory from which the
              job was started (which may not be the current directory  of  the
              job) will also be shown.

              The  -Z  option  replaces  the  shell’s argument and environment
              space with the given string,  truncated  if  necessary  to  fit.
              This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This fea-
              ture is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the  given  jobs
              or  processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with or
              without the ‘SIG’ prefix.  If  the  signal  being  sent  is  not
              ‘KILL’  or  ‘CONT’, then the job will be sent a ‘CONT’ signal if
              it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a  job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each  sig
              that  is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.  For
              each sig that is a signal number or a  number  representing  the
              exit  status  of  a process which was terminated or stopped by a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the  section
              ‘Arithmetic  Evaluation’ for a description of arithmetic expres-
              sions.  The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression
              is nonzero, and 1 otherwise.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set  or  display  resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given,
              the limit applies only the children of  the  shell.   If  -s  is
              given  without  other arguments, the resource limits of the cur-
              rent shell is set to the previously set resource limits  of  the
              children.

              If  limit  is  not  specified, print the current limit placed on
              resource, otherwise set the limit to the  specified  value.   If
              the  -h  flag  is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately  if  it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if it
              fails to set a limit for some other reason it will continue try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum  amount  of  memory  locked in RAM for AIO opera-
                     tions.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits are available depends on the sys-
              tem.  resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  It
              can also be an integer, which corresponds to the integer defined
              for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the resources configured into the shell, the shell will  try  to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.  As the shell does not store such  resources  internally,
              an  attempt  to  set the limit will fail unless the -s option is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

       local [ {+|-}AEFHLRUZahilprtux [n]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same as typeset, except that the options -g, and -f are not per-
              mitted.   In  this  case the -x option does not force the use of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the  cur-
              rent setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section ‘Precommand Modifiers’.

       popd [ {+|-}n ]
              Remove  an  entry  from the directory stack, and perform a cd to
              the new top directory.  With no argument, the current top  entry
              is  removed.   An  argument  of the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts
              from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the  meanings
              of ‘+’ and ‘-’ in this context are swapped.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
         [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With  the  ‘-f’ option the arguments are printed as described by
              printf.  With no flags or with the flag ‘-’, the  arguments  are
              printed  on  the  standard output as described by echo, with the
              following differences: the escape sequence ‘\M-x’  metafies  the
              character  x  (sets  the highest bit), ‘\C-x’ produces a control
              character  (‘\C-@’  and  ‘\C-?’  give  the  characters  NUL  and
              delete),  and ‘\E’ is a synonym for ‘\e’.  Finally, if not in an
              escape sequence, ‘\’ escapes the following character and is  not
              printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the  bind-
                     key command, see zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a  is  also
                     given,  arguments  are  printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat the arguments as directory  names,  replacing  pre-
                     fixes with ~ expressions, as appropriate.

              -i     If  given  together  with  -o or -O, sorting is performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments  separated  by  newlines  instead  of
                     spaces.

              -m     Take  the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted),
                     and remove it from the argument list together with subse-
                     quent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command,  which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag  is  given.   The  -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all  other  arguments  and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer  stack,  sepa-
                     rated by spaces.

              If  any  of ‘-m’, ‘-o’ or ‘-O’ are used in combination with ‘-f’
              and there are no arguments (after the  removal  process  in  the
              case of ‘-m’) then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print  the arguments according to the format specification. For-
              matting rules are the  same  as  used  in  C.  The  same  escape
              sequences  as  for echo are recognised in the format. All C con-
              version specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are  han-
              dled.  In  addition to this, ‘%b’ can be used instead of ‘%s’ to
              cause escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and ‘%q’
              can  be  used to quote the argument in such a way that allows it
              to be reused as shell input. With the numeric format specifiers,
              if the corresponding argument starts with a quote character, the
              numeric value of the following character is used as  the  number
              to  print  otherwise  the argument is evaluated as an arithmetic
              expression.  See  the  section  ‘Arithmetic  Evaluation’  for  a
              description  of  arithmetic  expressions.  With ‘%n’, the corre-
              sponding argument is taken as an identifier which is created  as
              an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is  to
              be  used by replacing ‘%’ by ‘%n$’ and ‘*’ by ‘*n$’.  It is rec-
              ommended that you do not mix references of this  explicit  style
              with  the normal style and the handling of such mixed styles may
              be subject to future change.

              If arguments remain unused after formatting, the  format  string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If  more
              arguments  are  required by the format than have been specified,
              the behaviour is as if zero or an empty string had  been  speci-
              fied as the argument.

       pushd [ -sLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -sLP ] old new
       pushd [ -sLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top two  entries),
              or  change  to  $HOME  if  the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if
              there is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is  inter-
              preted  as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in the
              second form is also the same as for cd.

              The third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the direc-
              tory  list.   An  argument  of  the form ‘+n’ identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting  with  zero.   An  argument  of the form ‘-n’
              counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option  is  set,  the
              meanings of ‘+’ and ‘-’ in this context are swapped.

              If  the option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the directory stack will
              be printed after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for  the  cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is  set  and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
        [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the  characters  in
              $IFS  as  separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc.,  with  leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for  arrays.

              -r     Raw  mode:  a  ‘\’  at the end of a line does not signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don’t quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don’t  echo back characters if reading from the terminal.
                     Currently does not work with the -q option.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     ‘y’  if  this  character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’ and to ‘n’ other-
                     wise.  With this flag set the return value is  zero  only
                     if  the  character was ‘y’ or ‘Y’.  Note that this always
                     reads from the terminal, even if used with the -p  or  -u
                     or  -z  flags  or with redirected input.  This option may
                     also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are  assigned  to
                     the  first  name,  without  word splitting.  This flag is
                     ignored when -q is  present.   Input  is  read  from  the
                     terminal  unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to  the  first  name,  without  word  splitting.  Text is
                     pushed onto the stack with ‘print -z’ or  with  push-line
                     from  the  line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This flag is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the  standard  out-
                     put.  If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to the
                     parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array  and  all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These  flags are allowed only if called inside a function
                     used for completion (specified with the -K flag  to  com-
                     pctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the current
                     command are read. If the -l flag is given, the whole line
                     is  assigned  as a scalar.  If both flags are present, -l
                     is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is  read.  With -l, the index of the character the cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1,  not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of  the  line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input  is  terminated  by  the  first  character of delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num  is  present,  it must begin with a digit and will be
                     evaluated to give a number of seconds,  which  may  be  a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num  is  not
                     present,  it  is  taken  to be zero, so that read returns
                     immediately if no input is available.   If  no  input  is
                     available,  return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer  with  -z, when called from within completion with
                     -c or -l, with -q which clears  the  input  queue  before
                     reading,  or  within zle where other mechanisms should be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note that read does not attempt to alter the  input  pro-
                     cessing  mode.   The  default mode is canonical input, in
                     which an entire line is read at a time, so usually  ‘read
                     -t’  will not read anything until an entire line has been
                     typed.  However, when reading from the terminal  with  -k
                     input  is processed one key at a time; in this case, only
                     availability of the first character is  tested,  so  that
                     e.g. ‘read -t -k 2’ can still block on the second charac-
                     ter.  Use two instances of ‘read -t -k’ if  this  is  not
                     what  is  wanted.   If the first argument contains a ‘?’,
                     the remainder of this word is used as a prompt  on  stan-
                     dard error when the shell is interactive.

              The  value  (exit  status)  of  read is 1 when an end-of-file is
              encountered, or when -c or -l is present and the command is  not
              called  from a compctl function, or as described for -q.  Other-
              wise the value is 0.

              The behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u  and  -z
              flags  is  undefined.   Presently  -q cancels all the others, -p
              cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p  and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes  a  shell  function or . script to return to the invoking
              script with the return status specified by n.  If n is  omitted,
              the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If  return  was  executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the
              effect is different for zero and non-zero return  status.   With
              zero  status  (or  after  an  implicit  return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously  pro-
              cessing; with a non-zero status, the shell will behave as inter-
              rupted except that the return status of the  trap  is  retained.
              Note  that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap
              is passed as  the  first  argument,  so  the  statement  ‘return
              $((128+$1))’  will  return  the same status as if the signal had
              not been trapped.

       sched  See the section ‘The zsh/sched Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [
       arg ... ]
              Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional  parame-
              ters,  or  declare and set an array.  If the -s option is given,
              it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before  assigning
              them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if -A is
              used).  With +s sort arguments in  descending  order.   For  the
              meaning  of  the  other  flags, see zshoptions(1).  Flags may be
              specified by name using the -o option. If no option name is sup-
              plied  with  -o, the current option states are printed.  With +o
              they are printed in a form that can be  used  as  input  to  the
              shell.

              If  the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing
              the given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are  printed
              together with their values.

              If  +A  is  used  and name is an array, the given arguments will
              replace the initial elements of that array; if no name is speci-
              fied, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The  behaviour  of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on
              whether the option KSH_ARRAYS is set.  If it  is  not  set,  all
              arguments  following  name  are treated as values for the array,
              regardless of their form.  If the option is set,  normal  option
              processing  continues  at that point; only regular arguments are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to ‘-x -- foo’ if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option ‘-x’ if it is set.

              If  the  -A  flag is not present, but there are arguments beyond
              the options, the positional parameters are set.  If  the  option
              list  (if  any)  is terminated by ‘--’, and there are no further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no ‘--’ are given, then the names and values
              of  all  parameters  are printed on the standard output.  If the
              only argument is ‘+’, the names of all parameters are printed.

       setcap See the section ‘The zsh/cap Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.   All  options  specified  either
              with  flags  or  by name are set.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently set are printed.  If  the  -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to protect them  from  filename  expansion),  and  all
              options with names matching these patterns are set.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The  positional  parameters  ${n+1}  ...  are renamed to $1 ...,
              where n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If  any
              names  are  given  then  the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as ., except that the current directory is always  searched
              and is always searched first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section ‘The zsh/stat Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend  the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it
              receives a SIGCONT.  Unless the -f option is  given,  this  will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like  the  system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use
              conditional expressions instead (see  the  section  ‘Conditional
              Expressions’).

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg [ sig ... ] ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect  it  from
              immediate  evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives sig.  Each sig can be given as a number or as
              the  name  of  a  signal.  If arg is ‘-’, then all traps sig are
              reset to their default values.  If arg is the empty string, then
              this  signal  is  ignored  by  the  shell and by the commands it
              invokes.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a  nonzero  exit  status.  If sig is DEBUG then arg will be exe-
              cuted after each command.  If sig is 0  or  EXIT  and  the  trap
              statement  is  executed  inside the body of a function, then the
              command arg is executed after the function completes.  If sig is
              0 or EXIT and the trap statement is not executed inside the body
              of a function, then the command arg is executed when  the  shell
              terminates.

              ZERR,  DEBUG and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.

              The trap command with no arguments prints  a  list  of  commands
              associated with each signal.

              Note  that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly dif-
              ferent from those defined as ‘TRAPNAL () { ... }’, as the latter
              have   their  own  function  environment  (line  numbers,  local
              variables, etc.) while the former use  the  environment  of  the
              command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap print $LINENO DEBUG

              will  print  the  line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit code of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes  it.   When  the
              tty  is  frozen, no changes made to the tty settings by external
              programs will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the
              size  of the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to
              their previous values as soon as each command exits or  is  sus-
              pended.  Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when the
              tty is frozen.  Without options it reports whether the  terminal
              is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHLRUZafghiklprtuxmz [n]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}LRUZrux ] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer
              to one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is created  for
              every  name  (even those that already exist), and is unset again
              when the function completes.  See  ‘Local  Parameters’  in  zsh-
              param(1).   The  same  rules  apply to special shell parameters,
              which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter  name  is  set  to
              value.  Note that arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset
              expressions, only scalars and integers.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each  remain-
              ing  name  that  refers to a parameter that is set, the name and
              value of the parameter are printed in the form of an assignment.
              Nothing  is  printed  for  newly-created parameters, or when any
              attribute flags listed below are  given  along  with  the  name.
              Using  ‘+’  instead  of minus to introduce an attribute turns it
              off.

              If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed  in
              the  form  of  a typeset comand and an assignment (which will be
              printed separately for arrays and associative  arrays),  regard-
              less  of  other  flags  and  options.   Note that the -h flag on
              parameters is respected; no value will be shown for these param-
              eters.

              If  the  -T  option  is  given,  two  or three arguments must be
              present (an exception is that zero arguments are allowed to show
              the  list of parameters created in this fashion).  The first two
              are the name of a scalar and an array parameter (in that  order)
              that  will  be  tied  together in the manner of $PATH and $path.
              The optional third  argument  is  a  single-character  separator
              which will be used to join the elements of the array to form the
              scalar; if absent, a colon is used, as  with  $PATH.   Only  the
              first  character  of the separator is significant; any remaining
              characters are  ignored.   Only  the  scalar  parameter  may  be
              assigned  an  initial  value.  Both the scalar and the array may
              otherwise be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the  other
              will automatically be unset too.  There is no way of untying the
              variables without unsetting them, or converting the type of  one
              of  them with another typeset command; +T does not work, assign-
              ing an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning  a  scalar  to
              array  sets  it  to  be  a single-element array.  Note that both
              ‘typeset -xT ...’  and ‘export -T ...’ work, but only the scalar
              will  be  marked for export.  Setting the value using the scalar
              version causes a  split  on  all  separators  (which  cannot  be
              quoted).

              The  -g  (global)  flag  is treated specially: it means that any
              resulting parameter will not be restricted to local scope.  Note
              that  this  does not necessarily mean that the parameter will be
              global, as the flag will apply to any existing  parameter  (even
              if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect
              the parameter after creation, hence it has no effect when  list-
              ing  existing  parameters,  nor does the flag +g have any effect
              except in combination with -m (see below).

              If no name is present, the names and values  of  all  parameters
              are printed.  In this case the attribute flags restrict the dis-
              play  to  only  those  parameters  that   have   the   specified
              attributes,  and using ‘+’ rather than ‘-’ to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter  name.  Also, if the last option is the word ‘+’, then
              names are printed but values are not.

              If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns
              (which  should be quoted).  With no attribute flags, all parame-
              ters (or functions with the -f flag)  with  matching  names  are
              printed  (the  shell  option  TYPESET_SILENT is not used in this
              case).  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns  are  given.   If
              the  +g  flag is combined with -m, a new local parameter is cre-
              ated for every matching parameter that  is  not  already  local.
              Otherwise  -m  applies  all  other  flags  or assignments to the
              existing parameters.  Except  when  assignments  are  made  with
              name=value,  using  +m  forces  the  matching  parameters  to be
              printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present
              or the +m form was used, each parameter name printed is preceded
              by a list of the attributes of that parameter  (array,  associa-
              tion,   exported,  integer,  readonly).   If  +m  is  used  with
              attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +,  the
              matching parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The  names  refer  to  associative  array parameters; see
                     ‘Array Parameters’ in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If  n
                     is  nonzero, it defines the width of the field; otherwise
                     it is determined by the width of the value of  the  first
                     assignment.  When the parameter is expanded, it is filled
                     on the right with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit
                     the  field.   Leading zeros are removed if the -Z flag is
                     also set.

              -R     Right justify and fill with  leading  blanks.   If  n  is
                     nonzero  if  defines the width of the field; otherwise it
                     is determined by the width of  the  value  of  the  first
                     assignment.  When the parameter is expanded, the field is
                     left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative  arrays),  keep  only
                     the  first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This may
                     also be set for colon-separated special  parameters  like
                     PATH  or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag has a different meaning
                     when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Right justify and fill with leading zeros  if  the  first
                     non-blank  character  is  a digit and the -L flag has not
                     been set.  If n is nonzero it defines the  width  of  the
                     field;  otherwise  it  is  determined by the width of the
                     value of the first assignment.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array  parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may not be assigned to in
                     the typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal  and
                     associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No
                     assignments can be made, and the only other  valid  flags
                     are  -t,  -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on execu-
                     tion tracing for this function.   The  -u  and  -U  flags
                     cause  the function to be marked for autoloading; -U also
                     causes alias expansion to be suppressed when the function
                     is  loaded.  The fpath parameter will be searched to find
                     the function definition when the function is first refer-
                     enced;  see  the section ‘Functions’. The -k and -z flags
                     make the function be loaded using ksh-style or  zsh-style
                     autoloading  respectively.  If neither is given, the set-
                     ting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option determines how the  func-
                     tion is loaded.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for special parameters (those marked
                     ‘<S>’ in the table in zshparams(1)), and for local param-
                     eters  with  the same name as a special parameter, though
                     harmless for  others.   A  special  parameter  with  this
                     attribute  will  not  retain its special effect when made
                     local.  Thus after ‘typeset -h PATH’, a function contain-
                     ing  ‘typeset PATH’ will create an ordinary local parame-
                     ter without the usual behaviour of PATH.   Alternatively,
                     the  local  parameter may itself be given this attribute;
                     hence inside a function  ‘typeset  -h  PATH’  creates  an
                     ordinary  local  parameter and the special PATH parameter
                     is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create
                     a  local  parameter using ‘typeset +h special’, where the
                     local copy of special will retain its special  properties
                     regardless  of  having  the -h attribute.  Global special
                     parameters loaded from shell modules (currently those  in
                     zsh/mapfile  and  zsh/parameter)  are automatically given
                     the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not  display  the
                     value  of the parameter when listing parameters; the dis-
                     play for such parameters is always as if the ‘+’ flag had
                     been  given.   Use  of the parameter is in other respects
                     normal, and the option does not apply if the parameter is
                     specified  by  name,  or  by  pattern with the -m option.
                     This  is  on  by  default  for  the  parameters  in   the
                     zsh/parameter  and  zsh/mapfile  modules.  Note, however,
                     that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for  non-spe-
                     cial parameters.

              -i     Use  an internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero
                     it defines the output arithmetic base,  otherwise  it  is
                     determined by the first assignment.

              -E     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.  On output the variable will be converted to sci-
                     entific  notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the number
                     of significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F     Use an internal double-precision floating point represen-
                     tation.   On  output  the  variable  will be converted to
                     fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines
                     the  number of digits to display after the decimal point;
                     the default is ten.

              -l     Convert the result to lower case whenever  the  parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The  given  names are marked readonly.  Note that if name
                     is a special parameter, the  readonly  attribute  can  be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

              -t     Tags  the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning
                     to the shell.  This flag has  a  different  meaning  when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert  the  result to upper case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted  when  assigned.
                     This  flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the  environment  of  subse-
                     quently  executed  commands.  If the option GLOBAL_EXPORT
                     is set, this implies the option -g,  unless  +g  is  also
                     explicitly  given;  in  other  words the parameter is not
                     made local to the enclosing function.  This is  for  com-
                     patibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdflmnpstv | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
              Set  or  display  resource limits of the shell and the processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit specified below or the value ‘unlimited’.  By default, only
              soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is  given  use  hard
              limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together
              with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.  If  no  options
              are  used,  the  file  size  limit (-f) is assumed.  If limit is
              omitted  the  current  value  of  the  specified  resources  are
              printed.   When  more  than  one resource values are printed the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over multiple resources, the shell will abort imme-
              diately  if  it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if it
              fails to set a limit for some other reson it will continue  try-
              ing to set the remaining limits.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     K-bytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -l     K-bytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     K-bytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -s     K-bytes on the size of the stack.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     processes available to the user.
              -v     K-bytes  on  the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called ‘address space’.

              A resource may also be specified by  integer  in  the  form  ‘-N
              resource’, where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the resource by the operating system.  This may be used  to  set
              the  limits for resources known to the shell which do not corre-
              spond to option letters.  Such limits will be shown by number in
              the output of ‘ulimit -a’.

              The  number may alternatively be out of the range of limits com-
              piled into the shell.  The shell will try to read or  write  the
              limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is  omitted,
              the  current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask to
              be printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is  printed
              as  an octal number.  Note that in the symbolic form the permis-
              sions you specify are those which are to be allowed (not denied)
              to the users specified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove  the element named name from an internal hash table.  The
              default is remove elements from the command hash table.  The  -a
              option  causes  unhash to remove regular or global aliases.  The
              -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.  The -f option
              causes  unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d options causes
              unhash to remove named directories.  If the -m flag is given the
              arguments  are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all ele-
              ments of the corresponding hash table with matching  names  will
              be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The  resource  limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.
              If the -h flag is given and the  shell  has  appropriate  privi-
              leges,  the  hard  resource  limit for each resource is removed.
              The resources of the shell process are only changed  if  the  -s
              flag is given.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each  named  parameter  is unset.  Local parameters remain local
              even if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the  previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by using subscript syntax on name, which should  be  quoted  (or
              the  entire  command  prefixed  with noglob) to protect the sub-
              script from filename generation.

              If the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as  patterns
              (should  be  quoted)  and all parameters with matching names are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array  elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of the
              pattern.

              The -v flag specifies that name refers to  parameters.  This  is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset  the  options for the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are  supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which  should
              be  quoted  to preserve them from being interpreted as glob pat-
              terns), and all options with names matching these  patterns  are
              unset.

       vared  See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait  for  the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given
              then all currently active child processes are waited for.   Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in the job table.  The exit status from this command is that  of
              the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results  in  a  csh-like  format.   This  takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For  each  name,  print ‘name: word’ where word is one of
                     alias, builtin, command, function,  hashed,  reserved  or
                     none,  according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias, a
                     built-in command, an external command, a shell  function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v  and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes  the contents of a shell function to be displayed,
                     which would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag  were
                     used.

              -p     Do  a  path  search  for  name  even  if  it is an alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do a search for all occurrences of  name  throughout  the
                     command  path.   Normally  only  the  first occurrence is
                     printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (should  be  quoted),
                     and  the information is displayed for each command match-
                     ing one of these patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print  the  symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This  builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions or
              scripts, storing the compiled form in a  file,  and  to  examine
              files   containing   the  compiled  form.   This  allows  faster
              autoloading of functions and execution of  scripts  by  avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a com-
              piled file.  If only the file argument is given, the output file
              has the name ‘file.zwc’ and will be placed in the same directory
              as the file.  The shell will load the compiled file  instead  of
              the  normal  function  file when the function is autoloaded; see
              the section ‘Autoloading Functions’ in zshfunc(1) for a descrip-
              tion  of  how  autoloaded functions are searched.  The extension
              .zwc stands for ‘zsh word code’.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files  are
              compiled  into  the output file given as the first argument.  If
              file does not end  in  .zwc,  this  extension  is  automatically
              appended.   Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions are
              called ‘digest’ files, and are intended to be used  as  elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The  second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled
              definitions for all the named functions into file.  For -c,  the
              names  must  be  functions  currently  defined in the shell, not
              those marked for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions  that  are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which case the fpath is searched and the contents of the defini-
              tion  files  for  those  functions,  if found, are compiled into
              file.  If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined  func-
              tions  and  functions  marked  for autoloading may be given.  In
              either case, the functions in files written with the  -c  or  -a
              option  will  be  autoloaded  as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different  options is that some definition files for autoloading
              define multiple functions, including the function with the  same
              name  as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In such
              cases the output of ‘zcompile -c’ does  not  include  the  addi-
              tional  functions defined in the file, and any other initializa-
              tion code in the file is lost.  Using ‘zcompile -a’ captures all
              this extra information.

              If  the  -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used
              as patterns and all functions whose names  match  one  of  these
              patterns  will  be written. If no name is given, the definitions
              of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded  will
              be written.

              The  third  form,  with the -t option, examines an existing com-
              piled file.  Without further arguments, the names of the  origi-
              nal files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of output
              shows the version of the shell which compiled the file  and  how
              the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by mapping
              it into memory).  With arguments,  nothing  is  output  and  the
              return  value  is  set to zero if definitions for all names were
              found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the  definition  for
              at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases  are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents  are  copied
                     into  the  shell’s memory, rather than memory-mapped (see
                     -M).  This happens automatically on systems that  do  not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it is often desirable to use this option;  otherwise  the
                     whole  file, including the code to define functions which
                     have already been defined,  will  remain  mapped,  conse-
                     quently wasting memory.

              -M     The  compiled file is mapped into the shell’s memory when
                     read. This is done in such a way that multiple  instances
                     of  the  shell  running  on the same host will share this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin  decides what to do based on the size of the com-
                     piled file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the  compiled  file  contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is  not  set,  even if it is set at the time the compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be  loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also
                     take precedence over any -k or -z  options  specified  to
                     the  autoload  builtin.  If  neither  of these options is
                     given, the function will be loaded as determined  by  the
                     setting  of  the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the com-
                     piled file is read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as  necessary
                     between  the listed names to specify the loading style of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always contains two versions of the com-
                     piled  format,  one  for  big-endian machines and one for
                     small-endian machines.  The upshot of this  is  that  the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually  used  (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section ‘The zsh/zftp Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section ‘Zle Builtins’ in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh’s loadable modules.  Loading
              of modules while the shell is running (‘dynamical  loading’)  is
              not  available on all operating systems, or on all installations
              on a particular operating system, although the zmodload  command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built into versions of the shell  executable  without  dynamical
              loading.

              Without  arguments the names of all currently loaded binary mod-
              ules are printed.  The -L option causes this list to be  in  the
              form  of  a  series  of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload  loads  a  binary  module.
                     The  module  must  be in a file with a name consisting of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     ‘.so’  (‘.sl’  on  HPUX).   If the module to be loaded is
                     already loaded and the -i option is given, the  duplicate
                     module  is  ignored.   Otherwise zmodload prints an error
                     message.

                     The named module is searched for in the same way  a  com-
                     mand  is,  using $module_path instead of $path.  However,
                     the path search is performed even when  the  module  name
                     contains  a  ‘/’, which it usually does.  There is no way
                     to prevent the path search.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given  that  was given when the module was loaded, but it
                     is not necessary for the module to exist in the  filesys-
                     tem.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module is
                     already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each module has a boot and a cleanup function.  The  mod-
                     ule will not be loaded if its boot function fails.  Simi-
                     larly a module can only be unloaded if its cleanup  func-
                     tion runs successfully.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The modules named in the second and subsequent  arguments
                     will be loaded before the module named in the first argu-
                     ment.

                     With -d and one argument, all dependencies for that  mod-
                     ule  are  listed.   With  -d and no arguments, all module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like  format.  The -L option changes this format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only  one  argument  is  given, all dependencies for that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.   It  defines
                     the  specified  builtins.   When any of those builtins is
                     called, the module specified in  the  first  argument  is
                     loaded.   If  only  the  name  is  given,  one builtin is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the   error   if   the  builtin  is  already  defined  or
                     autoloaded, regardless of which module it came from.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all  autoloaded  builtins  are
                     listed,  with  the  module  name  (if different) shown in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If  -b  is  used  together with the -u option, it removes
                     builtins previously defined with -ab.  This is only  pos-
                     sible  if  the  builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the error if the builtin is  already  removed  (or  never
                     existed).

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The  -ac  option  is  used to define autoloaded condition
                     codes. The cond strings give the names of the  conditions
                     defined  by the module. The optional -I option is used to
                     define infix condition names. Without this option  prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as a series of zmodload commands if  the  -L  option  is
                     given).

                     The  -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded condi-
                     tions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c  options,  but  makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The  -f  option  is  like the -b, -p, and -c options, but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if  the  -A  option  is  also   given,   module   aliases
                     corresponding  to  loaded  modules  are also shown.  With
                     arguments only the return status is set to  zero  if  all
                     strings  given  as  arguments are names of loaded modules
                     and to one if at least on string is not  the  name  of  a
                     loaded  module.   This can be used to test for the avail-
                     ability of things implemented by modules.  In this  case,
                     any aliases are automatically resolved and the -A flag is
                     not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either  via  a  call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
                     will attempt to load module instead.  If  module  is  not
                     given,  show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments
                     are given, list all defined module aliases.   When  list-
                     ing,  if  the -L flag was also given, list the definition
                     as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The existence of aliases for modules is completely  inde-
                     pendent  of  whether the name resolved is actually loaded
                     as a module: while the alias exists, loading and  unload-
                     ing  the  module  under  any  alias  has exactly the same
                     effect as using the resolved name, and  does  not  affect
                     the  connection  between  the alias and the resolved name
                     which can be removed either by zmodload -R or by redefin-
                     ing  the  alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the first
                     resolved name is itself an alias) are valid  so  long  as
                     these  are  not  circular.   As the aliases take the same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path named to exist as the alias will be resolved  first.
                     For example, ‘any/old/alias’ is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies  added to aliased modules are actually added
                     to the resolved module; these  remain  if  the  alias  is
                     removed.   It  is  valid to create an alias whose name is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it will not be possible to use  the  module  name  as  an
                     alias  as the module will already be marked as a loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command  anywhere  module  names  are required.  However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare ‘zmodload’.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was  not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction  between  modules  that  were
              linked  into  the shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make avail-
              able  the  builtins  and other things defined by modules (unless
              the module is autoloaded on these  definitions).  This  is  true
              even  for systems that don’t support dynamic loading of modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section ‘The zsh/zprof Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section ‘The zsh/zpty Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section ‘The zsh/net/socket Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section ‘The zsh/zutil Module’ in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section ‘The zsh/net/tcp Module’ in zshmodules(1).



zsh 4.2.1                       August 13, 2004                 ZSHBUILTINS(1)

Man(1) output converted with man2html