Title graphic

Amaze Your Friends! Baffle Your Enemies!

A long time ago (the spring of 1978) I got my first computer, a TRS-80 model 1. In the early days of personal computing, many computer peripherals, such as printers and floppy disk drives, were very expensive. In response, my dad (an electrical engineer) and I would cruise surplus electronics stores looking for deals on devices we could hook to our new computer.

One day, as we were searching a large warehouse near the University of Maryland, I came across a display featuring a small, clear, plastic box containing a battery, a couple of integrated circuits, and several randomly blinking LEDs. At the time, this was pretty neat since, while it served no useful purpose, it was self-contained and it had blinking lights. Above it was a handwritten sign that read:

Amaze Your Friends! Baffle Your Enemies!

The pervasive excitement in the early days of personal computing is hard to explain to people today. The computers of that period seem so laughably primitive by today's standards, but it was a revolution and there were many explorers mapping a new, uncharted frontier of personal empowerment and technical discovery.

People entering the computer field today are at a disadvantage compared to those of us who came up in the 1970s and 1980s. Back then, computers were very simple and slow with tiny memories; the attributes you need if you really want to understand how computers work. Today, computers are so fast, and software so large and complex that you can't really see the computer anymore and that's a shame. You can't see the beauty of what they do.

Today however, we are in the midst of another revolution: extremely low-cost computing. Devices like the Raspberry Pi offer the opportunity to work on systems that are much more pure in form compared to most contemporary mobile and desktop devices. But make no mistake, these low-cost devices are powerful. In fact, a $35 Raspberry Pi compares favorably to the $30,000 Unix workstations I used in the early 1990s.

This collection is a supplement to my first book, The Linux Command Line (TLCL) and as such, we will be referring back that book frequently, so if you don't already have a copy, please download one or, if you prefer, pick up a printed copy from your favorite bookseller or library. This time around we are going to build on our experience with the command line and add some more tools and techniques to our repertoire. Like TLCL, this collection is not about Linux system administration; rather it is a collection of topics that I consider both fun and interesting. We will cover many tools that will be of interest to budding system administrators, but the tools were chosen for other reasons. Sometimes they were chosen because they are "classic" Unix, others because they are just "something you should know," but mostly topics were chosen because I find them fun and interesting. Personal computing, after all, should be about doing things that are fun and interesting just as it was in the early days.

  • Midnight Commander

    At the beginning of chapter 4 in TLCL there is a discussion of GUI-based file managers versus the traditional command line tools for file manipulation such as cp, mv, and rm. While many common file manipulations are easily done with a graphical file manager, the command line tools provide additional power and flexibility.

    In this adventure we will look at Midnight Commander, a character-based directory browser and file manager that bridges the two worlds of the familiar graphical file manager and the common command line tools.

    The design of Midnight Commander is based on a common concept in file managers: dual directory panes where the listings of two directories are shown at the same time. The idea is that files are moved or copied from the directory shown in one pane to the directory shown in the other. Midnight Commander can do this, and much, much more.

  • Terminal Multiplexers

    It's easy to take the terminal for granted. After all, modern terminal emulators like gnome-terminal, konsole, and the others included with Linux desktop environments are feature-rich applications that satisfy most of our needs. But sometimes we need more. We need to have multiple shell sessions running in a single terminal. We need to display more than one application in a single terminal. We need to move a running terminal session from one computer to another. In short, we need a terminal multiplexer.

    Terminal multiplexers are programs that can perform these amazing feats. In this adventure, we will look at three examples: GNU screen, tmux, and byobu.

  • Less Typing

    Since the beginning of time, Man has had an uneasy relationship with his keyboard. Sure, keyboards make it possible to express our precise wishes to the computer, but in our fat-fingered excitement to get stuff done, we often suffer from typos and digital fatigue.

    In this adventure, we will travel down the carpal tunnel to the land of less typing. We covered some of this in TLCL, but here we will look a little deeper.

  • More Redirection

    As we learned in chapter 6 of TLCL, I/O redirection is one of the most useful and powerful features of the shell. With redirection, our commands can send and receive streams of data to and from files and devices, as well as allow us to connect different programs together into pipelines.

    In this adventure, we will look at redirection in a little more depth to see how it works and to discover some additional features and useful redirection techniques.

  • tput

    While our command line environment is certainly powerful, it can be be somewhat lacking when it comes to visual appeal. Our terminals cannot create the rich environment of the graphical user interface, but it doesn't mean we are doomed to always look at plain characters on a plain background.

    In this adventure, we will look at tput, a command used to manipulate our terminal. With it, we can change the color of text, apply effects, and generally brighten things up. More importantly, we can use tput to improve the human factors of our scripts. For example, we can use color and text effects to better present information to our users.

  • dialog

    If we look at contemporary software, we might be surprised to learn that the majority of code in most programs today has very little to do with the real work for which the program was intended. Rather, the majority of code is used to create the user interface. Modern graphical programs need large amounts of CPU time and memory for their sophisticated eye candy. This helps explain why command line programs usually use so little memory and CPU compared to their GUI counterparts.

    Still, the command line interface is often inconvenient. If only there were some way to emulate common graphical user interface features on a text display.

    In this adventure, we're going to look at dialog, a program that does just that. It displays various kinds of dialog boxes that we can incorporate into our shell scripts to give them a much friendlier face. dialog dates back a number of years and is now just one member of a family of programs that attempt to solve the user interface problem for command line users.

  • AWK

    One of the great things we can do in the shell is embed other programming languages within the body of our scripts. We have seen hints of this with the stream editor sed, and the arbitrary precision calculator program bc. By using the shell's single quoting mechanism to isolate text from shell expansion, we can freely express other programming languages, provided we have a suitable language interpreter to execute them.

    In this adventure, we are going to look at one such program, awk, a classic pattern matching and text processing language.

  • Other Shells

    While we have spent a great deal of time learning the bash shell, it's not the only game in town. Unix has had several popular shells and almost all are available for Linux, too. In this adventure, we will look at some of these, mostly for their historical significance. With a couple of possible exceptions, there is very little reason to switch, as bash is a pretty good shell. Some of these alternate shells are still popular on other Unix and Unix-like systems, but are rarely used in Linux except when compatibility with other systems is required.

  • Power Terminals

    Over the course of our many lessons and adventures, we have learned a lot about the shell, and explored many of the common command line utilities found on Linux systems. There is, however, one program we have overlooked, and it may be among the most important and most frequently used of them all-- our terminal emulator.

    In this adventure, we are going to dig into these essential tools and look at a few of the different terminal programs and the many interesting things we can do with them.

  • Vim, with Vigor

    TLCL Chapter 12 taught us the basic skills necessary to use the vim text editor. However, we barely scratched the surface of its capabilities. Vim is a very powerful program. In fact, it's safe to say that vim can do anything. It's just a question of figuring out how. In this adventure, we will acquire an intermediate level of skill in this popular tool. In particular, we will look at ways to improve our productivity writing shell programs, configuration files, and documentation. Even better, after we get the hang of some of these additional features, using vim actually becomes fun.


© 2000-2018, William E. Shotts, Jr. Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this copyright notice is preserved.

Linux® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.